Coarticulation: Coarticulation is what that ensures the smooth production of sounds. One-fifth of a second is taken for the production of a syllable. While we speak, our tongue, lips and jaw move rapidly. Our brain coordinates these movements in a way that, the movement needed to produce adjacent vowels and consonants is produced simultaneously…
And when producing pp, the lips will be stretched to produce y. The whole word is uttered in half a second.
Elision: Elision is the loss of a phoneme. I.e. the omission of sounds (vowel/consonant/syllable), so that the speaker can simplify the pronunciation. This usually occurs in a fast speech and is normally unintentional.
Allophone: Allophone is a phonetic variant of a phoneme in a particular language. I.e. it is one of the several speech sounds belonging to the same phoneme. A change in allophone does not alter the meaning, but rather makes the word sound non-native.
Minimal pairs enable the linguists to build up the phoneme inventory for a language or a dialect. Though the words differ by only one segment, there may be wide variations in terms of articulation. However, most minimal pairs are considerably distinct and hardly pose inconvenience to the speaker or listener.
Complementary Distribution: it is the mutually exclusive relationship between two phonetically similar segments. It exists when one segment occurs in one particular environment and the other occurring in an entirely different environment.
Example: Consider the allophones [p'] and [p]. ...
Example: Consider the allophones [p'] and [p]. [p'], the aspirated phoneme occurs when there is a syllable onset and is followed by a stressed vowel (as in the word put) and the unaspirated phoneme [p] occurs all other times. Here we see complementary distribution in similar phones. Every time it need not be allophones. For example,[h] and ['] are in complementary distribution, since [h] only occurs at the beginning of a syllable and ['] only at the end. Since they have hardly anything in common in phonetic terms, they are better considered as separate phonemes.
Phonological conditioning and conditioning factors:
Consider the words- cats, dogs, judges. The final sounds- /s/, /z/, /s/ occur after the sounds /t/, /g/ and /'/, respectively. When the distribution of the various allomorphs can be stated in terms of their phonemic environments, the allomorphs are said to be phonologically conditioned. Phonological conditioning is the most general and productive kind of conditioning of morphemic variants in languages.
Biuniqueness: It is a principle which provides a one-to-one correspondence between phonemic and phonetic levels of analysis. A phonemic description is said to be biunique if phonemes and allophones are unambiguously mapped on to each other.
Example: send and sent pronounced as /sent/ and seed and seat pronounced as /si:t/.
Neutralization: phonemes that are contrastive in certain environments may not be so in all environments. In those environments where they do not contrast, the contrast is said to be neutralized.
Example: consider the word sum: /s'm/. In another word, plumber: /pl'mb'/, since /m/ is followed by a plosive sound /b/, the contrast is lost.
Archiphoneme: This is an abstract phonological ...
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(“Phonology Case Study Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words”, n.d.)
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(Phonology Case Study Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 Words)
“Phonology Case Study Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 Words”, n.d. https://studentshare.net/education/283230-phonology.
Significantly, the role of phonological processes in learning to read has been studied by several scholars in the field. As a result of the developments in these studies, the current approaches in learning impairment highlight phoneme awareness and the relations between speech and alphabetic writing.
This is because such a research exposes common causes of reading difficulty. With reference to the research in question which was carried out on behalf of the Society for Research in Child Development, there are critical areas of analysis as far as experimental methods used and results found are concerned.
The shorthand sign made for a consonant is called a character or a stroke (Consonants). The sounds /p, b, t, d, k/ as in ‘pen’, beetle, tip, deer, king, respectively are examples of consonant sounds. Consonants include all breathed (voiceless) sounds, and those voiced sounds produced by means of an obstruction in the mouth, or by a narrowing of the air passage, giving rise to a frictional noise.
These are categorized into two classes according to the point of articulation and the manner of articulation. For example, the category of point of articulation there is bilabial, dental, alveolar, labiodental, vela, palatal and so on while the category of manner of articulation includes stop, affricate, fricative, lateral, nasal and glides (Kopczynksi, 1993).
Thus, 'rhotic accents' (Roach, English Phonetics and Phonology, p. 63) would pronounce words such as 'four' and 'hard' as /f: r/ and 'h:rd/ respectively. On the other hand, the standard pronunciation of English (or BBC English) is 'non-rhotic', spelling the same words as /f: / and 'h:d/.
The different features of connected speech may explain the differences between written English and spoken English which many people get surprised with. But in reality, people do not really speak in separate words for words are usually spoken in logical connected groups of words.
According to the report these languages belong to two different families: English to the family of Indo-European languages, and Jordanian Arabic is a dialect of Arabic- a Semitic language. Some of the differences have been looked at in the two sections that follow, as well as some similarities and common features that signify the universal elements.
Leading academic Blevins’ work in “Evolutionary Phonology” (2007) focuses on recurrence of sound patterns in world languages in an attempt to formulate an explanation for the similarities in sound patterns.
Blevins’ theory of evolutionary phonology
The essay should include a thorough analysis of some examples of coarticulation from any language with which you are familiar.
Human speech is a fascinating phenomenon which has inspired scholars to develop various ways of categorising it and
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