Packa, and Sandra B. Dunbar 1993, 89-96). We trust them because they have been there before. They embody our hopes, cast light on the way ahead, interpret arcane signs, warn us of lurking dangers, and point out unexpected delights along the way. Mentoring is a process that increasingly used in management development and the skills and techniques learned on the management development programme are put into practice through the support and help of an experienced manager back in the workplace (Allery, L. A., Owen, P. A., & Robling, M. R. 1997, 870-4).
Learning environment did occur most frequently when the supervisor kept an equidistant position. This position is not only an open, non-judgemental, non-competitive attitude, but also includes the keeping of a continuous and stable focus on the RN's reconstruction of his interaction with the patient: in other words, viewing the nurse-patient interaction as a "system" with its own boundaries and frame. The patient can discover new material in the object as the analyst fails largely or completely to meet the patient's expectations in certain areas-particularly the area of difficulties--which have previously always been fulfilled by virtue of unconscious steering mechanisms. Similarly, dynamic factors that frequently stimulate conflicts seem always to be present in the supervisory system and influence the learning process. Nevertheless, it is possible and desirable to maintain the frame and boundaries around both the patient-analyst and the candidate-supervisor systems.
In most large hospitals there are orientation programs for employees, with instruction in hospital organization, policies and procedures. These learning and orientation is sometimes further informal instruction on the practical aspects of the nurse's responsibilities in the ward. (Means in large hospitals not only formally but they also teach indifferently nurse's responsibilities that is also believed to be very effective).
It can be seen that this type of centralized orientation program provides an overview of the hospital and provide knowledge and skills relating to the environment.
Care, W. (1996, 27-30) describes importance of supervision and mentorship from three points of view: an organizational phenomenon, a structural role and a type of interpersonal relationship.
The organizational phenomenon. The mentor is given the authority to introduce the RN to the culture and operation of the hospital, thereby assisting with socialization of the employee. The hospital culture is unique, and through this process of socialization the RN may be made aware of the prevailing attitudes and values of the organization.
Structural role phenomenon. With this aspect, primary emphasis is on the role development of the RN (Freeth, D., Nicol, M. 1998, 455-461). The mentor uses his/her professional experience in the work environment to guide the registered nurses in bridging the gap between theoretical knowledge and clinical practice, thereby increasing his/her level of independent functioning.
Interpersonal emphasis. Where the emphasis is interpersonal,