Her focus is more on the second language acquisition process and how larger social and cultural contexts affect it, especially for immigrant students.
Diverse background of students requires a different conception of curricula and a different approach to materials. Differentiation and individualization are not a luxury in this context: They are a necessity.
Learners' goals can vary from wholly integrative-the desire to assimilate and become a full member of the English-speaking world-to primarily instrumental-oriented toward specific goals such as academic or professional success (Gardner, 1989).
Jim Cummins has written various works discussing 'bi-lingual education' with respect to various social factors like globalization, immigration and population mobility. He thinks that "Neo-fascist groups in a number of countries promote overtly racist policies in relation to immigrant and culturally diverse communities." (Cummins, par.3) They worry that linguistic, cultural, "racial" and religious diversity threaten the identity of the host society. On the other hand, more liberal groups in these countries advocate assimilation into the mainstream of society. ...Show more