Effective teaching is crucial in enabling learners understand how to read and the underlying concepts behind such learning. An effective reader is a product of employed good strategies, which are not however easily recognised, unless through effective teaching. In the reading process, the learner must learn the fundamentals of reading comprehension, which serves as the key concept in reading. There is a need for the learner to grasp the context, sequence, and characters of the piece of reading material, which he/she currently engages in. This need must be ensured by the teacher in the teaching-learning process. Teaching how to read involves enabling the learner to get the clear idea of the meaning of the text alongside its theme or idea. Without the full grasp of this, the learner fails to establish a good understanding of the text, which in turn affects the meaning of why he/she does reading in the first place.
Fluency is an important aspect in teaching how to read, albeit its rather difficult task to accomplish this. However, fluency in reading is the key that enables the reader to understand completely, quickly, and expressively what he has read along with good comprehension. Effective instruction in fluency leads to overall improvements in reading, which is reached through accuracy in word recognition, assisted reading, and synergistic instructional routines (Rasinski, 2005). Parents must be aware of incorporating teaching into their children's daily lives, which would then be enhanced in the classroom. The five essential components that beginning readers use must be emphasised well, which include knowledge of alphabet, phonological awareness, oral reading fluency, vocabulary, and comprehension (Rasinski, 2005). These are likewise the same areas that the Reading teacher must focus on in order to teach the child effectively.
It is often said that had reading come naturally, teaching would be much easier. But reading must be taught and does not come just naturally and teachers must give students the chance to practice the skill. Good teachers are so important because in their hands lie the realisation of reading acquisition of many children.
Theories and Models of the Reading Process
This paper posits that the main principles of effective practice in the teaching and assessment of reading are (1) attention to minor aspects of reading, which involves letters and individual words (2) understanding of whole meanings in order to make reading enjoyable, (3) application of relevant models/theories in the reading process.
Currently, there is a new debate on how the teaching of reading can best take place, which is focused on teaching through a bottom-up manner, while the other camp is through top-down approach. The first is concerned with teaching children to first decipher words or parts thereof and putting them together to make meaning, while the second is concerned with teaching children on meaningful units of language and only later have them focused on the individual