Historically, students of African-American origin have lower graduation rates, higher attrition rates, and more reports of academic difficulty when compared with their majority counterparts (Chavez & Maestas-Flores, 2000; Clewell & Ficklen, 2002; Grayson, 2004; Levin & Levin, 2000)…
In 4 years, 43% of majority students earned bachelor degrees, and 47.3% of them earned bachelor degrees in 9 years (Grayson, 2004;).
This national data provide ample evidence of limited gains and significant losses in the enrollment figures of African-American students in institutions of higher learning. These trends, evident over at least the last 15 years, plague institutions and persist despite recruitment and retention initiatives, as well as government-supported programs and legislative actions. This trend .is a clear imperative to colleges and universities to prioritize a commitment to diversity and to reexamine existing retention practices and programs.
Tinto (2000) conceptualized retention as an interactional process between student and institution characteristics. When student and institution characteristics do not mesh, students experience isolation, have difficulty identifying and feeling part of the institution, and are more likely to withdraw. Academically successful students, who persist through graduation, have been found to successfully integrate into the academic and social culture of the institution they attend (Pascarella & Terenzini, 2001, 2002). This integration process increases student satisfaction with the institution, creates a sense of belonging at the institution, and creates a stronger commitment to the institution's educational goals and standards, leading to an increased involvement with learning (Levin & Levin, 2000). This integration process is difficult for African-American students, especially at predominately White institutions (Grayson, 2004; Mayo, Murguia, & Padilla, 2001; Sedlacek, 2002). Oftentimes, African-American students at predominately White institutions feel they are in a foreign land and experience predominately White institutions as foreign colleges with alien cultures and communities (Tinto, 2000).
Over the past 40 years, students' characteristics have changed from White upper-or middle-class, academically skilled backgrounds to a complicated mix of socioeconomic, cultural, and academic-preparation backgrounds. Predominately White institutions often are unaware of the social, academic, and cultural needs of African-American students and of the barriers these students face in completing their 4-year degree. All too often, these institutions continue business as usual without addressing these needs and barriers (Phillip, 2000). It is not uncommon for African-American students in these environments to feel isolated, to question their academic ability, to experience inferiority feelings, and to question their self-worth. They also often experience disrespect, lower expectations, and pressure from peers not to perform well academically. Because of these experiences, African-American students often have difficulty communicating with the majority students, faculty, and staff at predominately White institutions and experience the negative effects of racism and other forms of discrimination (Belluck, 1999; Morgan, 2000, 2003; Phillip, 2000; Sedlacek, 2002; Walters, 2003). They become separated from the mainstream social and academic cultures on White campuses and become isolated and alienated from the institution (Phillip, 2000; Suen, 2000). Without what has been described as a "critical mass" (a large number of African-American students to create supportive minority subcultures on campus) or a strong ...
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The developed countries of the world are regularly faced with the problem of shortages in the number of nurses. The existence of nurse shortages is primarily due to the fact that the entire workforce of nurses at present is growing old. For intensifying the adverse situation, there is excessive demand for services related to health accompanied with scarcity of nursing mentors for educating the students and thus creating new era nurses.
Just like any other program the mentoring and induction process is faced by numerous challenges that have to be curbed to ensure the whole process is successful. Numerous studies have been conducted in relation to induction and mentoring. Eggen et al. (2005) explains that for an individual to be successful in life they need to have a good support system and a good mentor who is dedicated and committed to guide and advise them.
In addition, women physicians earn less than their male counterparts earn and are concentrated in specialties that are less lucrative, work fewer hours, and their academic ranks are not as advanced as they are for men. The summit also believed that mentoring elements and relationships in mentoring are starkly different for both genders, particularly as it is more difficult for women to approach mentors (DeLaat, 2007).
This indicates a shift to training techniques which facilitate more diverse social constructionist and learning approaches (Munro 2009). Mentoring has been indicated as an important approach that could impart tactical and social knowledge and psychological support and resources.
There are numerous definitions for the word mentoring. Providing the broadest definition for mentoring, Clawson (1996) states that mentoring occurs when both parties in a relationship acknowledge the importance of what one can teach and the other can learn.
Mentoring "refers to a developmental relationship between a more experienced mentor and a less experienced partner referred to as a mentee or protg." ("Wikipedia", 2006). In the matter of different types of mentoring, there are two in particular: formal and informal.
According to the report an academic mentor may occupy a formal or an informal way of mentoring. It may range from extremely complicated or procedure-based, to a simple one. However, in any case, the type of this affiliation is not as significant as it outcome that is achieved by the end of mentoring.
sure success in mentoring and other workplace learning approaches, Viewed 5 October, < http://www.nursingtimes.net/nursing- practice/specialisms/educators/skills-to-ensure-success-in-mentoring-and-other- workplace-learning-approaches/5010479.> 13
A mentor is simply a wise
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