In Italy, the state, having acknowledged the importance of pre-school education (preparatory school to primary education), took over the complete responsibility in 1968 with the Law no. 444. With Law no. 444, pre-school, with the passing of time by, by gaining educational value and didactical autonomy, became a part of educational system. Currently Law no. 53 of 28 Mar 2003 and delegated decree no. 59 of 19 Feb 2004 provide for the full introduction of pre-schools in the education system. Due to the anticipated enrollment in pre-schools, all efforts are now directed to open pre-schools to children who reach three years of age.
As far as primary education is concerned, in Italy, The Casti Law (1859) provided the establishment of compulsory lower primary school (including 1st and 2nd class) and higher primary school (including 3rd and 4rth class). Municipalities had to take care of this and by 1861 this establishment is extended to whole Italy. Currently with the approval of Legislative decree 59/2004, primary school education is now composed of 5-year primary school and 3-year lower secondary school education. After the approval of decree no. 59, the debates are going on how teachers are going to
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