In Italy, the state, having acknowledged the importance of pre-school education (preparatory school to primary education), took over the complete responsibility in 1968 with the Law no. 444. With Law no. 444, pre-school, with the passing of time by, by gaining educational value and didactical autonomy, became a part of educational system. Currently Law no. 53 of 28 Mar 2003 and delegated decree no. 59 of 19 Feb 2004 provide for the full introduction of pre-schools in the education system. Due to the anticipated enrollment in pre-schools, all efforts are now directed to open pre-schools to children who reach three years of age.
As far as primary education is concerned, in Italy, The Casti Law (1859) provided the establishment of compulsory lower primary school (including 1st and 2nd class) and higher primary school (including 3rd and 4rth class). Municipalities had to take care of this and by 1861 this establishment is extended to whole Italy. Currently with the approval of Legislative decree 59/2004, primary school education is now composed of 5-year primary school and 3-year lower secondary school education. After the approval of decree no. 59, the debates are going on how teachers are going to
UK Government consists of Legislature, the Executive and the judiciary. The parliament consists of Queens, the appointed house of Lords and the elected house of Commons consisting of 659 members. Parliament passes laws, monitors government policies. The Executive cabinet consists of 20 ministers, usually head of government departments, appointed and chosen by Prime Minister.
Before school standard and framework act 1998, Local Education Authority (LEA) gave provisions to children aged between 2 to 5 years having some Special Education Needs. The 1998 Act imposed a duty on LEA to provide pre-school education in their area. By Apr 2004, LEA has provided free places for two and half hours of pre-school five days a week to all 3-year and 4-year old children. Over the recent years, publicly funded early years education is now being expanded and developed by the cooperation of private and voluntary sectors, which receive government funding, subject to meeting certain conditions and requirements. Under the education act 0f 2002, the foundation stage of education (3-year to 5-year) becomes a