Arab schools advanced several teachings of Greek scholars and added several valuable theories of its own.
Medical education received further boost with the advance of Christianity. Such factors, as promulgation of doctrine and teaching that protected and supported sick persons, led not only to further discussions on the causes of illness, but also entailed the establishment of first institutions where sick persons were treated and their physical conditions were studied and compared. According to some historians first western European medical school was established at 9 century A.D in Italian city Salerno. By that period of time medical science had already advanced in several areas and thus examinations of the school could evaluate the competence and professionalism of graduates and first titles of "doctor" were awarded to those who graduated from the school. 1
Apart from the first steps aimed at the systemization of the medicine and registration of the practitioners, several important health precepts were also developed in the school. In that period of time medical education also developed in several Middle Eastern regions with the notable centers of Baghdad and Cairo.
By 1518 there was an imperative need in increasing ethical standards in medicine and enhancing the carriers of medical specialists. The group of noted physicians led by Thomas Linacre asked King Henry VIII to help them to establish the college similar to other colleges located in other countries. Once the college had been founded Thomas Linacre became the first president of it. The main tasks of the college were licensing and evaluating of practitioners as well as punishing those who posed themselves as the medical or apothecary specialists. In 1523 the college obtained the power to license medical specialists in the whole territory of England.
Apart from licensing the college also conducted some scientific activities and published several editions of London Pharmacopoeia in 1618, which would become ones of the most reliable pharmacological sources until 1864. 2
One of the most notable physicians of that period of time- Herman Boerhaave became the lecturer at Lyeden University. First he gave lectures and conducted research in theoretical medicine. Boarhavee helped to popularize the teaching of Hippocrates (who had not been well known by students) and focused on the importance of chemistry for the research in medicine. In this way he showed that medicine should be taught in conjunction with other disciplines. . The medicine thus was taught in conjunction with other sciences such as Chemistry. However, this was not his only contribution to the development of medical education. His teaching was based on the teaching of Hippocras as well as Thomas Sydenham. 4 In views of many historians he was the first person who introduced bedside teaching and emphasized the importance of clinical experience for the researching of the disease.
2 Royal College of Physicians. (http://www.rcplondon.ac.uk/college/about_home.htm)
3 Herman Boerhaave (http://www.whonamedit.com/doctor.cfm/2404.html)
4 Medicine is Stamps. (http://www.sma.org.sg/smj/4501/4501ms1.pdf).