There is much evidence for the value of "operant conditioning". Many see this approach as balancing the need to teach and achieve academic skills with the need to acquire personal and life skills. Furthermore "operant conditioning" has been found to be effective in including children with disabilities in mainstream classrooms.
Operant conditioning can be defined as a type of learning in which voluntary (controllable; non-reflexive) behavior is strengthened if it is reinforced and weakened if it is punished (or not reinforced) 1 . It states that environmental contingencies or the environment's 'reaction' to an individual's behaviour controls that individual's behaviour.
As an Undergraduate he was an English major, then decided to study Psychology in graduate school. Early in his career he believed much of behavior could be studied in a single, controlled environment (created Skinner box - address later). Instead of observing behavior in the natural world, he attempted to study behavior in a closed, controlled unit. This prevents any factors not under study from interfering with the study - as a result, Skinner could truly study behavior and specific factors that influence behavior. During the "cognitive revolution" that swept Psychology (discussed later), Skinner stuck to the position that behavior was not guided by inner force or cognition. This made him a "radical behaviorist". As his theories of Operant Conditioning developed, Skinner became passionate about social issues, such as free will, how they developed, why they developed, how they were propagated, etc. 1
Skinner state that actions that are followed by reinforcing consequences are more likely to re-occur, and that actions that are followed by unpleasant or punishing consequences are less likely to re-occur. Again this might seem deceptively simple. However, the theory becomes more complicated when one realizes that what constitutes punishment and reinforcement differs depending on the individual. Skinner also noted that the situation within which the learning took place had to be taken into account. In analyzing and trying to account for behaviour, the psychologist, as behavioural detective, needs to take into account the antecedent (what happens immediately before the behaviour), the behaviour, and the consequences of the behaviour. This method is known as the ABC approach (A for antecedent, B for behaviour and C for consequences).
There are five basic processes in operant conditioning: positive and negative reinforcement strengthen behavior; punishment, response cost, and extinction weaken behavior 2.
The term reinforcement always indicates a process that strengthens a behavior; the word positive has two cues associated with it. First, a positive or pleasant stimulus is used in the process, and second, the reinforcer is added (i.e., "positive" as in + sign for addition). In positive reinforcement, a positive reinforcer is added after a response and increases the frequency of the response. 2
The term reinforcement always indicates a process that strengthens a behavior; the word negative has two cues associated with it. First, a negative or aversive stimulus is used in the process, and second, the reinforcer is subtracted (i.e., "negative" as in a "-" sign for subtraction). In negative reinforcement, after the response the negative reinforcer is removed which increases the fre ...
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(Applications of Operant Conditioning at School Essay)
“Applications of Operant Conditioning at School Essay”, n.d. https://studentshare.net/education/297213-applications-of-operant-conditioning-at-school.
This essay functions by considering one such aspect of behavior and proposing a solution to it based on Skinner’s operant conditioning methods. The specific behavior in question involves my cat, Chester.
I aim to read a watercolor painting book and I need to condition myself to read it every day. My goal is to read each chapter of this book and to apply skills mentioned there. I will use conditioned stimulus to achieve my desired conditioned response of reading the watercolor painting book.
Because of this addiction, I sacrifice sleep and other extra-curricular activities, although I make sure that I do not sacrifice my studies by playing. Lately, however, I have been increasing my play hours and this is bothering me. I want to decrease my hours of play to only 2 hours during school days and 3 hours during non-school days.
Many studies have shown that individual stimuli can control responses by operant conditioning, and there have been attempts to show that a combination of these stimuli will give a greater response than when taken individually.
He was studying the process of transformation of the conscious mind to the science of behavior. The instrumental learning of Thordike is termed as “operant conditioning” where the individuals accustomed with new responses in align with that “operate on” the environment.
The process of learning to meet the demands of the environment is called conditioning. Conditioning is basically of two types i.e., Respondent Conditioning and Operant Conditioning.
According to Pierce and Cheney "Respondent conditioning occurs when a neutral or meaningless stimulus is paired with an unconditioned stimulus" example being salivation of dog when food is placed at its mouth.
He provided the dogs with food, and monitored their salivary response and then he began ringing a bell just before presenting the food. He noticed that the dogs would begin to salivate on seeing his assistant carrying food pans even before he presented the
Neutral operants are the responses gained from the environment which have no effect on the probability of repetition of a behavior. Reinforcers are those responses gained from the environment whose effect causes
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