Inclusion in education is defined as the process of enhancing the participation of children and young people in the cultures, curriculums, and communities of the local schools and at the same time reducing their exclusion from the same. It can only be achieved through practices in education that can overcome barriers to access and participation in delivered education (Howley, Preece and Arnold, 2001, 41-52).
This was replaced by a revised version which was issued in 2001, coming into effect in January 2002 (DFES 2001). The nature of provision for special educational needs has changed drastically over the last few years following the Warnock Report and the 1981 Education Act, with an increased awareness of educational needs and a consonant focus on improving the quality of provision for much larger numbers of children (Griffiths, 1998, 95 in Quicke, 2007, 2-15). This implies improvement of education of all and specially of those with special needs that would impart knowledge and power to all (QCA/DfEE, 2001).
Department of Health has recently published a White Paper for people with learning disabilities in 2001 (Department of Health, 2001, 1-10). The United Kingdom has separate educational systems for England and Wales, Northern Ireland and Scotland. As far as education is concerned, the countries are split up into so-called local education authorities that carry a large part of the responsibility for organising education at local level. Historically, for a long time, England and Wales had separate systems for regular and special education. Since the Warnock Report in 1978, it has been assumed in the UK that about 20 per cent of school-aged children will have special educational needs requiring additional help at some point in their school careers. Furthermore, approximately 2 per cent of children will have severe physical, sensory, intellectual or emotional difficulties, some of which will remain with them throughout their lives. Historically this 2 per cent of children have been excluded from mainstream schools, receiving their education in special schools instead. In recent years, a growing sense of injustice regarding the idea of segregated special schooling for these pupils has led to calls for more inclusive educational opportunities as a matter of human right and equal opportunity (Amatea, 1988, 174-183). By the Education Acts 1981 and 1993, which latter consolidated into the Education Act 1996, the policy of parental choice in the field of special educational needs has in most respects been merely built on key recommendations in the Warnock Report in 1978, namely that the education system should pay heed to parental knowledge about their child's needs and respect parental wishes regarding the child's education (Farrell, 2001, 3-9). Warnock's other recommendation was to integrate the education, meaning pupils with special educational needs should, as far as possible, be educated alongside other children in mainstream schools (Lewis, 2004, 3-9).
In relation to this, this process must acknowledge the diversity of needs of all students creating opportunity to support learning of all students inclusive of those who have impairments or needs for special educations. While the White Paper was explicitly a response of the authorities from the concerns to promote better life chances for people with special needs for education, it identifies the many barriers that such children and their families face in fully participating in their communities. This paper promotes the benefits to be ...
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In addition, special education needs involves those special educational programs aimed at ensuing that children with a disability are assisted in funding their education. Apart from funding, students with special needs also require special services from resource teachers and other professionals concerned with speech and language therapy.
However, many parents that deal with children that have learning problems are still unaware of how this act could help them and the children. Because they might not be able to determine if their children truly have learning problems, they might dismiss them as lazy or lacking in motivation, when in fact they needed additional help and guidance.
As a result of this, majority of children were identified as uneducable and were grouped into categories such as educationally sub-normal or maladjusted. These categories of unique children resulted to the provision of special education treatment in separate schools.
The Special Educational Needs (SEN) Code of Practice provides a standardized approach towards the integration of the children with special educational needs in the mainstream. More importantly it focuses on the rights of the children with special educational needs and empowers them by making them a part of the decision making process of their educational system.
But all of them are not providing the quality and special needs. There has been an increase in the number of special children in almost all the countries. As these students are not treated like other children, most of them are still taken care by the service organizations.
The reliance on market forces as a mechanism of quality control and the unprecedented degree of centralized control of the curriculum, for instance, are principles calling for revolutionary changes in the way teachers operate
Issues surrounding inclusion debate have included; whether it is right to label children as disabled, whether it is ethical to treat such children differently, teacher training for special education needs, the issue surrounding funding and equipping of such schools.
The Children’s Act (2004) however highly affects all the children from birth to the nineteen year olds. It aimed at improving the educational achievements of all the children including those children who have special educational
These difficulties direct the children to behave indifferently to the society. The scope of autism has increased in the recent years with about 2% of the population suffering from autism. (what is autism, n.d.; Frith,
These difficulties might occur in the sphere of schoolwork, understanding numbers or having problems in making friends. This implies that they lack the ability to enjoy a normal kind of well-being like
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