They defined curriculum as "a set of intentions about opportunities for engagement of persons-to-be-educated with other persons and with things (all bearers of information, processes, techniques, and values) in certain arrangements of time and space."
Tanner and Tanner (1980) traced the history of curriculum definitions showing that "curriculum has been variously defined as: 1) the cumulative tradition of organized knowledge; 2) modes of thoughts; 3) race experience; 4) guided experience; 5) a planned learning environment; 6) cognitive/affective content and process; 7) an instructional plan; 8) instructional ends or outcomes; and 9) a technological systems of production."
Historically and currently, the dominant concepts of the curriculum is that of subjects and subject matter therein to be taught by teachers and learned by students. In high schools and colleges, the term curriculum has been and still is widely used to refer to the set of subjects or courses offered, and also to those required or recommended or grouped for other purposes; thus, terms as the college preparatory curriculum, science curriculum, and premedical curriculum are commonly used. In curriculum terminology, program of studies is more properly used in these connections.
Despite efforts for over a half century to achieve broader and different curriculum foci, the concept of curriculum as subject matter persists as the basis of the dominant curriculum design. It was central to and emphasized by the wave of curriculum development in the subject fields that began in the 1950s and was stimulated by the Russian advance into out space and subsequent pressure to improve American education.
The concept of the curriculum as subjects and subject matter has been reflected in a plethora of theories relating to principles for selection, sequence, and grade placement of subject matter. Comprehensive state merits of the theory underlying curriculum planning for a subject curriculum are of relatively recent origin, perhaps because the process was so long unchallenged and in a general sense is well known. Curriculum planning for a subject curriculum follows a fairly common formula:
1. Use export judgment (based on various social and educational factory to determine what subjects to teach).
2. Use some criterion matter for particular populations (grouped, for example, by state. District age, or grade) and subjects.
3. Plan and implement appropriate methods of instruction to ensure mastery of the subject matter selected.
Even with the more sophisticated theories and processes new now available, we reject as inadequate any conception of the curriculum which confines education to the fields of organized knowledge, earner, when subject planning and materials development were well done that they are today, curriculum theorizing generally tended to be focused on moving away from the subject design.
ii. The Curriculum as Experience
The concept of th