In the learning of a second language aside from an individual's native tongue, the means of instruction on how to grasp it is very important, for it will be the determinant on how a person will communicate and comprehend elements using that particular language…
The language that is the target to be learned is referred to as L2, and the acquisition; the second language acquisition is known as the L2A, or much better known as SLA.
Formal instruction possesses a profound effect in the everyday endeavors of learners who are trying to gain fluency and mastery of a second language, so therefore, the rule of formal instruction in the process of learning a second language must be investigated and examined thoroughly. Moreover, it complements the best way to make instruction effective and helpful. Numerous studies have been carried out to investigate whether the ways of instruction alters the sequence of the learners' acquisition, and also, whether the learners acquire the language in the way the naturalistic learners do.
One of the most emphasized concepts about second language learning is that some individuals are more inclined to learning a second language than other individuals. But there are factors to be considered before uttering such statements, such as age, motivation, ability, and socio-psychological factors. In addition to some SLA aspirants being more successful than others, there also exists the fossilization, which denotes the phenomenon of being stuck in a stagnant state of language knowledge. Zhaohong Han in 2004 stated that a "complete acquisition of a second language is impossible." In "the course of the last 3 decades, SLA have accumulated an amazing chunk of evidence proving the empirical phenomenon of fossilization." (Han, 2004).
It is widely recognized that the "fossilization precipitated the existence of the SLA." (Gass and Selinker, 2006). The phenomenon is disputed as true because of the theory that no matter how hard the efforts the learners exert to learn, they will be in a stage where their knowledge is "stuck" quite distant from the expected target. And also, "this phenomenon also seems to affect even the most advanced learners of L2. Fossilization is a frequently discussed and yet little misunderstood notion concerning second language. The phenomenon is thought upon as the inevitable 'intermediate' difference between the learners' native language and their target language, for the implications brought about by the familiarity with the native language indirectly influences the ways in which the target language will be learned." (Gass and Selinker, 2006).
No matter the magnitude of the expertise of the instructions and means of instructions possess, there will always be a case in which fossilization seems to hamper and "hold back" ...
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(“Second Language Acquisition Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2500 words”, n.d.)
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(Second Language Acquisition Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2500 Words)
“Second Language Acquisition Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2500 Words”, n.d. https://studentshare.net/education/309245-second-language-acquisition.
“Transfer” can be defined as a fundamental process to language performance, a construction strategy or a communication strategy (Gass and Selinker 1983), or a limitation on the hypotheses that learners will devise about the target language). Transfer can happen from the national language (L1) to L2 or from L2 to L1 (Cook 2002).
She is trying to teach them vocabulary regarding food. She makes them look at the map and point out a place at the map. A child touch somewhere on the map and the slide moves on to the food specialty of that country. She targets at their imaginative skills by asking them to name the food they see on the screen.
In the community, the individual who can talk using a second language usually gain more friends and have more affiliations.
But there are also some people who seem to patronise their own language so much that they refuse or find it hard to learn a second language.
Hence, an understanding of second language acquisition can enhance the capability of mainstream teachers to provide objective education in culturally and linguistically diversified framework (Fillmore & Snow, 2000; Hamayan, 1990). Current studies encapsulating the theories of language acquisition have been developed through a thorough research in several interconnected fields such as linguistics, psychology, sociology, anthropology, and neurolinguistics (Freeman & Freeman, 2001).
Without a shadow of a doubt, the future of mankind learning a second language besides his native tongue depends on the medium of instruction that is to be utilized, and not to mention the characteristics of teachers that will interact with the second language learners.
the reference of the concept as Second Language Acquisition, this concept does not necessarily mean the process of acquiring a second language only, but also the process of acquiring a third, fourth, fifth or other subsequent languages. The common argument has been that the