As companies and corporations become larger and more complex, so do the responsibilities of management and the call for structured strategies. In our world of exploding technological changes, the burden of change upon individuals becomes greater and there is also the continual threat of downsizing or being replaced by automation.
There are innumerable theories regarding human motivation and especially over the past twenty-five years, these theories have provided a maze through which management has walked, trying this and that; some theories worked, others did not. Let us examine just a few theories that have withstood the test of time and are the core of the newer theories.
We shall begin with the advent of Maslow's theory of hierarchy of needs, since it was Maslow who countered Sigmund Freud's statements of declaring people as inherently lazy creatures who are motivated at work only through reward, coercion, intimidation and punishment (accel Team, 2005).
A. H. Maslow brought management and workers out of the dark ages and delivered them into a refreshing affirmation of themselves as human beings rather than animals. According to Mazlow, the highest needs of a human are self-esteem and self-actualisation (Maslow, 1943, pp 381 - 383).
In the workplace (according to Maslow), the ability to exercise c ...Show more