Special education is focused on providing education to children or individuals with special needs. In the past, Koreans used to have a negative opinion towards people with disabilities. (Americans with Disabilities Act, Ohio State University) They used to think that having a family member who has disabilities is something to be ashamed of. (Kim and Kang) For them, disability was a problem that was for the individual to overcome for himself, all by himself. Over the years, with a number of developments in Korea's legislation that have provisions for the rights of the disabled, this negative concept has made a 180-degree turn. With this very positive development, and their keen interest in how to improve their education system, Koreans are very much intent to leave no stones unturned.
For children who have minor disabilities, the Korean education system has embraced inclusive education. Inclusive education is defined as system of education or a school system wherein all children, regardless of their abilities or disabilities are all considered active components of the school community. Inclusive education aims to provide an academic environment where all students are given equal opportunities and therefore leaves little or no room for discrimination. (Kim)
Students who have minor disabilities are recommended to attend regular schools. ...
B. Vulnerable Children defined
A vulnerable child, in general, is defined as a child 18 years old and below who lost their parents or guardians. This could be a permanent situation, as there are those who lost both parents through death, and some were temporarily displaced because of certain unfortunate events and are in need of care. (Smart, 2003)
In general, this includes orphans, street children, children who have certain medical conditions, children with certain disabilities and others. (Unicef, n.d.)
C. Bronfenbrenner's Ecological Model
Urie Bronfenbrenner is considered as one of the world's leaders in the study of developmental psychology (Wikipedia, 2006). One of his most significant contributions is the development of the Ecological Systems Theory.
Urie Bronfenbrenner's ecological theory discusses the major factors that affect a child's development. According to his concept, relationships and environment play a major role in a child's development. As child matures, the more knowledge, culture and values he acquires from his education, cultural heritage, parents and peers. His interactions in his affinities and his environment form in him a set of what he considers "norms'.
A child's needs vary as he goes through the cycle of life. These transitions that he will encounter will slowly reveal how his influences affect the development of his personality as he deals with them head on.
Bronfenbrenner has identified four levels of systems that make up the Ecological Systems. These are the microsystem, mesosystem, exosystem, macrosystem and chronosystem. These so-called systems are actually environments and situations that have a great influence in a person's development. (The Ontario Institute for Studies in Education of