The three main theories are behaviorism theory, constructivism theory and socio-cultural theory. Behaviorism theory states that knowledge exists and learners should discover it. . Constructivism theory states that knowledge can be created in the mind of a child while socio-cultural theory states that knowledge is created and transferred when children interact with members of the society. The society, the state as well as individual members of the societies understand the importance of developing and nurturing the capabilities of a child to develop into a responsible and productive adult in the coming years.
There are various ways of promoting learning and development of children. First, according to Blake et al (21), children learn and develop when they feel sense of containment, worth and love. They also need to be inspired, encouraged and challenged to stretch beyond their capabilities to be able learn and develop. As a result, they develop positive attitude towards learning. Secondly, children and young people need a role model who they are able to observe and emulate. This will show them a path to follow as they develop into adults. Thirdly, they need opportunities to practice and internalize different ways of being and behaving. The opportunities can be availed in form of well thought of role-plays, music, acting (drama) and group work. The opportunities enabled them to learn and understand themselves and their personalities as they interact with various members of the society. Therefore, children should receive enjoyable and challenging experiences during their learning and development. Fourthly, the individuality of every child should be recognised and nurtured at all developmental stages. This assures that the children's individual needs as well as interests and abilities are taken into solemn considerations. Fifth, the children should be assisted to identify their talents and hobbies. This is because talents and hobbies make them enthusiastic and the levels of their self-esteem grow. Furthermore, talents and hobbies help children develop passions early in life. This is done by listening to the voices of children when they talk about their interests and likes in life as well as paying attention to the environment where the child learns and develops. Sixthly, children should be praised for every good thing they do. This reinforces positive behavior in their learning environment. It is important to note and understand that children enjoy growing and developing in a stimulating environment. Stimulating environment presents a platform for challenging activities and experiences for growing and developing children. If every aspect of a child is taken into consideration, the child would exhibit progress in his or her learning and development endeavors.
Seventh, it is important to ensure that children are safe and healthy. Children should be kept away from hazards that can devastate or disempower them in the environment in which they live. Children should be fed with balanced diets. In addition, children should be taught how to keep themselves healthy. They need to learn to wash their hands regularly and brush their teeth after main meals.
Whichever the approach utilized