However since effective classroom is a significant contributor to the learning and development of the students it is important to examine the issue in order to identify strategies that could make it easier for teachers. There are a multitude of strategies and approaches that have been put forward and tried over the years; but before going into the process of classroom management and strategies it is important to define what exactly the term means.
Classroom management has been defined in various ways but it generally involves what the teacher practices to ensure order in the classroom. It addresses both the learning or academic environment in the classroom and also the behavioural aspects of the environment; so that it has a two-fold purpose and perhaps that is part of what makes it such a difficult task for the teacher. According to Beckles and Ellis (2003),classroom management is “ a complex task consisting of planning lessons, providing a safe environment, teaching students and perhaps the most daunting task of all, appropriately responding to student behaviour problems” (p.23). Another definition states that “classroom management consists of a wide array of proactive, well-established and consistent techniques and practices” (Johnson et al, 2006). They posit that in order for teachers “to relate content effectively, the classroom must be well managed” (p.29). Additions to the definition of classroom management include that it “needs to encourage positive social interaction, active engagement in learning and self-motivation” (Burden 2003, cited in Reupert and Woodcock, 2010). ...
(Reupert and Woodcock 2010). Many first- year teachers feel confident about their subject content and their instructional strategies; it is the classroom management that is of concern, according to Johnson et al (2006). They describe classroom management as involving classroom procedures and behaviour management. They explain that the classroom procedures are the practices that include academic, routine and special situations; for example academic routines include planning lessons and assessing students, routine situations involve organising the class especially the arrival and exit of students at beginning and end of day and for transitions during the day. Fire and disaster drills constitute special routines. The behaviour management should be proactive rather than reactive. They further point out that teachers need to be taught behavior management skills since they do not come naturally. Classroom management strategies. “Teachers’ actions in classrooms have twice the impact on student motivation as do school policies regarding curriculum, assessment, staff collegiality and community involvement” (Marzano and Marzano, 2003 p.6). These authors emphasise the important role teachers play in managing classroom effectively. As stated above, there exists a wide variety of strategies and suggestions for effective classroom management. On examining some of these a common thread is obvious. Marzano and Marzano (2003) outline the important components of classroom management as beginning the school year with a positive emphasis on management, arranging the room in a way that is conducive to effective management and identifying and implementing