As the essay stresses learning theories are the basis of instructional-design theories. Reigeluth comments that the relationship between a learning theory and an instructional theory could be equated to that of a house and its foundation. Problem-based learning (PBL), is a constructivist learning model, which is fundamentally an instructional-design theory. Reigeluth observes that a theory is considered to be an instructional theory if it “offers explicit guidance on how to better help people learn and develop.”
From the report it is clear that constructivist theories are based on the assumption that students must construct their own ideas through the guidance of a teacher. Here the teacher is a mere guide and the student shoulders the responsibility of unravelling knowledge for themselves. In constructivist model of education, there is no memorising of theory and data. Students have to reach upon their conclusions and have to develop knowledge by themselves. As Miller suggests, if the learner is to acquire specific knowledge, then the instruction must employ the correct instructional strategy for promoting the acquisition of that kind of knowledge. Cognitive Constructivism propounded by Piaget believes in the supremacy of mind in learning process and considers the organization of information around concepts, problems, and the interrelationships of associated subjects and ideas.