Bowen, N. K., & Bowen, G. L. (1999). Effects of crime and violence in neighborhoods and schools on the school behavior and performance of adolescents. Journal of Adolescent Research, 14(3), 319-342. doi: 10.1177/0743558499143003
This study examined the relationship between neighborhood and school violence and adolescents' behavior and academic performance. Specifically, the authors wanted to discover how violence affects student's attendance, behavior, and grades. Data on students' self-reported exposure to neighborhood and school violence was gathered from a sample of middle and high school students who completed the National School Success Profile (SSP). The SSP revealed reports of high exposure to environmental danger among African-Americans, males, high school students, school lunch recipients, and urban students. The study found that both neighborhood and school danger predicted attendance and behavior. Neighborhood danger, however, was more predictive of school outcomes than do school danger. This study contributed in the early identification of adolescents living in dangerous school and neighborhood environments. The authors suggested taking an ecological approach in assessing school environments to encourage excellent academic performance among adolescent students.
Ceballo, R., McLoyd, V. C., & Toyokawa, T. (2004). The influence of neighborhood quality on adolescents’ educational values and school effort. Journal of Adolescent Research, 19(6), 716-739. ...Show more