Bowen, N. K., & Bowen, G. L. (1999). Effects of crime and violence in neighborhoods and schools on the school behavior and performance of adolescents. Journal of Adolescent Research, 14(3), 319-342. doi: 10.1177/0743558499143003
This study examined the relationship between neighborhood and school violence and adolescents' behavior and academic performance. Specifically, the authors wanted to discover how violence affects student's attendance, behavior, and grades. Data on students' self-reported exposure to neighborhood and school violence was gathered from a sample of middle and high school students who completed the National School Success Profile (SSP). The SSP revealed reports of high exposure to environmental danger among African-Americans, males, high school students, school lunch recipients, and urban students. The study found that both neighborhood and school danger predicted attendance and behavior. Neighborhood danger, however, was more predictive of school outcomes than do school danger. This study contributed in the early identification of adolescents living in dangerous school and neighborhood environments. The authors suggested taking an ecological approach in assessing school environments to encourage excellent academic performance among adolescent students.
Ceballo, R., McLoyd, V. C., & Toyokawa, T. (2004). The influence of neighborhood quality on adolescents’ educational values and school effort. Journal of Adolescent Research, 19(6), 716-739. ...
Specifically, associations were found between neighborhood quality and educational values of African-American females. In addition, the study yielded gender-specific results when the model was tested separately for males and females. Dearing, E. (2004). The developmental implications of restrictive and supportive parenting across neighborhoods and ethnicities: Exceptions are the rule. Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology, 25(5), 555-575. doi:10.1016/j.appdev.2004.08.007 This study explored the effect of neighborhood crime and income on the relationship between parenting style and child behavior. Restrictive and supportive parenting styles are said to influence a child's emotional well-being and academic performance. Using a longitudinal design, elementary school-age children of African-American, European-American, and Latino-American descent were studied. Positive associations were found between restrictive parenting style and depression, and between supportive parenting style and academic performance. Negative association, meanwhile, was found between restrictive parenting style and academic performance. In riskier neighborhoods, the negative effect of restrictive style in European-American children was exacerbated. On the other hand, both restrictive and supportive styles were found to be a protective factor among African-American children in riskier neighborhoods. The results for Latino-American children were generally similar with those of African-American. The author concluded that parenting styles and neighborhood context influenced children's development. Eamon, M. K. (2005). Social-demographic, school, neighborhood, and parenting influences on the academic achievement of Latino