EDUCATIONAL POLICIES BY COURSE For a number of politicians and policy makers, educational institutions are the biggest problem and the best solution. They are the best solution due to their ability to secure social transformation…
Every successive government views education as a field for change as public opinion and support for educational development is always guaranteed. Therefore, every government promises to lift standards, enhance achievement and schools. While methods and initiatives differ with every political party, the issue of improving schools has been a regular policy objective in many countries (Townsend, 2007). All around the world, governments are trying out to new policies to deal with innovative technologies, new world order and a dynamic global economy. All through the post-war period, there have been numerous efforts to improve the UK education system, frequently with a clear objective to try and make it more effective (Machin & Vignoles, 2006). It is believed that education plays a significant role in facilitating economic growth, equality of opportunity and social justice (Townsend, 2007). Over the last two decades, there has been an unparalleled growth in public interest in education, which has given rise to a number of policies such as SureStart, Every Child Matters (ECM), Education Maintenance Allowance (EMA), expansion Higher Education, etc. Trowler (2003:95) defines education policy as “… a specification of principles and actions, related to educational issues, which are followed or which should be followed and which are designed to being about desired goals.” The definition clearly illustrates that fact that policy is a process, something which is dynamic and not unchangeable. Trowler (2003) further suggests that the ‘dynamic’ comes from: political and educational conflict; interpretation of policy and the practical implication for individuals involved at all levels of the education system. Thus a working and debatable definition of the education policy-making process could be the historical, social and political processes that shape a theme or issue within the education system (Trowler, 2003). Ozga (2000) suggests that policy can be viewed directly in terms as the actions of government, intended to secure certain results. Similarly, it can be considered a process rather than a product, entailing negotiation, opposition or resistance among various segments who might not be a part of the formal machinery of official policy making. Ozga (1990) asserts that educational policy is not an impartial creation and it is also not created entirely at a single level without finding the middle ground with others. In theory, McLaughlin (1987) shows that policy implementation studies demonstrates how the transformation of policy into practice is distinguished by “bargaining and negotiation” and how policy as enacted varies from policy as designed. Research further demonstrates the way officially formulated educational policies are adapted, sometimes altered, when executed in schools and classrooms (Coburn, 2001). Moreover, policies are challenged, interpreted and performed in a variety of areas as words and meanings of policymakers do not always transform directly and clearly into institutional operations. They are inflected, thought over, opposed and misinterpreted, or in a few cases simply prove impracticable. It is also essential not to misjudge the logical rationality of policy (Ball, 2008). State constitutions designate different institutions with task and official authority for education policymaking. In the modern world, constitutional power and responsibility might be the only complete ...
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