The essay "Bilingual Versus Dual Curriculum Instruction" talks about the history of bilingualism in education which can be categorized into four major stages: permissive, restrictive, opportunist and dismissive.
Prior to the arrival of the European immigrants, United States was home to a variety of native languages, and after the advent of foreign immigrants into the country, the number of languages spoken within its territory increased to approximately two hundred. Throughout the nineteenth century till the beginning of the First World War, the existence of such diverse languages was commonly assimilated throughout the country. Language diversity was acknowledged as the custom and promoted via religion, print media such as publishing of newspapers in diverse languages, as well as using education as a tool to promote language use. Evidence of such permissive period in the history of bilingual education in the country can be found in the various schools which exist throughout the United States.
During the early nineteenth century, the government endeavored to suppress certain indigenous communities such as the Indians, by laying out regressive policies which sought to restrict them to their reservations. Furthermore, several institutions, such as the American Protective Association, were established which strongly encouraged an English-only system of education. The Immigration Restriction Leagues was established during the same period, which aimed at eluding the immigrants from entering the U.S.