As the dissertation stresses it is no longer possible for a state or a region to pursue its own agenda secluded from the rest of the world and even the largest and most dominant societies, like the United States, must now take account of the many views and approaches that have currency in the world. People migrate more, and this means that any society is likely to contain people who hold a variety of different values, and follow different religions, with consequently different lifestyles and behaviors. In addition to this diverse population there is also an increase in the speed of change in society, and a need to equip all citizens to function within the high technology and fast-changing world of work and an often complex and multi-cultural family setting. For educators concerned to fulfil their obligations in the area of character and citizenship education (CCE) this pluralistic context presents a number of considerable challenges.
This paper declares that the task of CCE has been defined in various ways, according to different theoretical perspectives. Behaviourist approaches work on a principle of rewards and punishments, based on the idea that children can be moulded using these means towards appropriate behavior. Behaviorists assume that children are inherently unable to make good choices, and must be educated, often using quite strict controls, into moral decision-making. The teaching of values in this context means making sure that children adopt the strict rules of a paternalistic society. ...Show more