Hence, the role of the principal has gone beyond managing the daily affairs of the school and supervising teachers, to include knowledge in, and management of other areas of expertise such as data analysis, professional development, development of learning organizations within the school, mentoring of staff, and political tasks. (Ritchie & Woods, 2007) Principals are constantly faced with high demands to increase student achievement in accordance with the mandate of the No Child Left Behind Act of 2001 (Jaimes, 2010).
The challenge is critical in inner city high schools where interest in learning has declined and schools have become factories for student dropouts (Canada, 2010). In such situations, a single leader–centered school cannot manage many aspects of school structures as effectively and in a timely manner as one in which leadership roles are distributed among key staff (Angelle, 2010). School administrators have three roles that include managerial, political and instructional (Spillane and Diamond, 2007). As a manager, the principal is faced with budgeting, hiring, school planning, scheduling and building maintenance. His instructional roles include teacher supervision and evaluation, facilitating of professional growth, instructional planning and the developing of the school’s vision and mission statements, power distributions, staff member negotiations, creation of alliances and building coalitions with stakeholders. (Muijs & Harris, 2007) ...Show more