Journal Entries for the ff: 1. P.D. Reynolds -A Primer in Theory Construction. 2. David Hume- An Enquiry Concerning Human Understanding 3. Karl Popper-Objective Knowledge 4. T. Kuhn -The Structure of Scientific Revolutions. T. Kuhn 5. After Theory by Terry Eagleton 6…
Nevertheless its study is still of great importance in order to grasp the dynamics of the cognitive capacities of a human being. P.D. REYNOLDS A theory no matter how abstract it may be presented is still bound by reality, it can be a result of experiments, observations, or simply the product of insights on how something works or how it comes into existence. But ultimately these theories start with a simple idea. DAVID HUME To further delve into the concept of what actually is an idea and what gives birth to it, there is a need to understand its origins. In or daily existence we perceive a lot of things, which are consciously or unconsciously stored in our memory. Different perceptions stored in our minds in the form of memory or imagination mimic the sensations, perceived by the body’s five senses, in so far as representing the perception based on its characteristics. (e.g. how a body shivers whenever feeling cold) But can never fully copy the force of the actual perception felt by the body (Hume, 2008, p.7). Hence we often come across phrases such as “we can almost taste” what a certain food actually tastes like. Otherwise if no such limitation is placed, an individual would be able to transcend the need for physical contact or worse madness may set in. Feeling an emotion is different from thinking how that same emotion felt like. Thus it is worth noting that, of all the thoughts that an individual posses about different subjects that he or she had encountered, it is the vaguest of these thoughts that make a person’s ideas. If an individual does not have a clear perception in mind about a certain subject all the information pertaining to that subject will simply be impressions of the individual. Such impressions can be correct or incorrect, or based on the individuals innate nature or referenced from another impression. Thus we can also come across a phrase like, “I was under the impression” that this was how it was supposed to be done. KARL POPPER Due to an individual’s orientation and or nature one can develop ideas into theories, scientific or non scientific in nature, and through the criticism that these theories yields more objective knowledge as it opens the door to more questions and possibilities for its own improvement or paves the way for it to be debunked. Nonetheless the process of criticizing a theory rather than holding on to its proposed validity ensures that it is cleared of any biases, and false claims thus promoting objectivity even more. T. KUHN Furthermore if a theory can be criticized then it is not farfetched that a deviation from a long standing train of thought brought about by a theory is possible. A paradigm shift, or an event of deviation from a widely known belief founded to incur several anomalies. Hence, a shift is needed, once an established theory is proven to be unprecedented and sufficiently open-ended. Much like in conducting an experiment, in order to prove its validity, repetitive experiments are done to gain acceptance in the research community. There are different kinds of paradigm which can explain parts and parcel of different events. Such weakness prevents them to gain notable success. Paradigm shift is a radical idea in expounding and establishing new concepts that contributes to contemporary beliefs and making them more sophisticated and comprehensive theories. ...
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