Development and Diversity - Essay Example

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Development and Diversity

Later Thorndike added to the Pavlov’s theory by incorporating the idea of learning occurring when there was a “bond” between the stimuli and the response (Standridge, 2002). For Thorndike, the learner’s behavior could be adjusted by the presence of strong connections between the stimuli and response. B.F. Skinner added operant conditioning to the milieu and he established the concepts of reward and punishment. Rewards or praise connoted positive reinforcement. This type of reinforcement produced the necessary connections between the stimuli and response as posited by Thorndike. Likewise, punishment was considered to be negative reinforcement which causes the learner to reduce the inappropriate behavior. Skinner believed that although reinforcement increases learning, reinforcement that is given on an irregular basis allows the learning to be added to the long-term memory. Skinner’s operant conditioning was followed by Watson and eventually Guthrie established his “contiguity (simultaneity of stimulus and response events)” theory (Lefrancois as cited in Standridge 2002). ...Show more


Development and Diversity Developmental theories such as behaviorist theories, cognitive theories, and social learning theory are some of the standards which have shaped the teaching and learning environment of today. This paper focuses on one of these theories which have been instrumental in structuring the manner in which students and teachers interact with each other on a daily basis as such the author attempts to describe the principles of the behaviorist theory and how this theory can be applied to the classroom…
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Development and Diversity essay example
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