This paper will discuss the evolution of the faculty in higher education in the United States throughout the history. It will be tracing through the colonial to modern period to find out the societal context that influenced the evolution of faculty in higher education…
n example, there was an authorized provision for “College Senate” in one of the institutions, but the bylaws stated that the membership could be drawn wholly from the board of administers and college governors, and not from the faculty. From these, one can assess that the creation and refinement of the structure is a legacy of the colonial colleges which in turn defined and shaped the higher education system in the United States to the present day. However, Thelin (2004) suggests that we do learn many straightforward incidents from Adams about Harvard in 1858. The classes were small and had about one hundred students per class with a total enrollment of about five hundred. Its faculty could enjoy a high local prestige in the society but were not well paid (p.63). This practice in the Harvard was implemented with intent to encourage them for developing the habit of self-criticism and even self-doubt. By the end of the 19th century, various systems in the German higher education such as ideal of advanced scholarship and doctoral programs with graduate students had influences over the United States’ higher education system. The American university in the 1890s typically was the historic college that was internally renovated and enhanced by new programs. It seemed like a smorgasbord for students and a few of them opted for a bachelor’s degree from there. It was the Morril Act of 1862 contributed to the expansion of the state college into the university model of federated units (Thelin, p. 104). However, the faculty’s teaching overload remained the same even with the expansion into new system. Only token allowances were granted for graduate courses and seminars while curricular offerings were for undergraduates. The implementation of new academic systems resulted...
From the disc ussion it is clear that the higher education in the colonial era had been under the administration of queens, kings, and bishops for centuries. The faculty at these institutions faced daily scrutiny from the administrative board and received immoderate approach from the directors who appointed them. In fact, as Thelin states, the academic freedom and the rights of the teacher in respect to the “hiring and firing” received little consideration from the authorities. At this period, a class president usually reported to the board of administrators rather than the faculty. This essay stresses that a major factor that influenced the changes in faculty system was the contributions made by Charles Eliot. He gained fame though often referred as notoriety by implementing bold modernizations at Harvard College. He introduced an elective system from which some colleges formulated provisions for electives in student curriculum, while others sustained the same course of study. There have been evidences about implementing more provisions for specialized departments. The faculty identification was the factor highly impacted by the provision to conglomerate the colleges. The states’ silence on issues of higher education campus enhancement in the 1880s was not a result of the governments’ disinterest towards research, applied science or technology. It did not imply that colleges or universities were systems for large-scale government projects. ...
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