This test was adopted to be used in the United States in 1905 by a psychologist called Lewis Terman (Morra, 2008). The intelligent quotient has its scoring concept based on the mental age. In this test, the average intelligence of a child needs to match with his/her age. However, a gifted child has his or her performance compared to that of older children while the slow leaners are identified through comparisons with younger children. There are a number of theories of cognitive development, yet there is none that gives explanations to all the cognitive development aspects. The Jean Piaget theory is one of the most comprehensive and influential postulate. Jean argues that intelligence is an enabling agent for one to adapt to an environment. Ones intelligence is shown by his or her response towards a certain stimuli. He was interested in the reaction of children towards the environment (Morra, 2008). The knowledge of a child contains basic units referred to as schemas which organize experiences acquired in the past and provide grounds in which new ones are understood. Piaget establishes four main stages of development and each of these stages build on the experiences a child acquires from the previous stage. These stages include; 1) Sensory or infancy stage: During this period intelligence is shown through the reflex activity that does not involve the use of symbols. The knowledge develops in a limited manner as a result of reduced physical, interactive activities and various experiences gained. Infants begin learning the world around them by using their senses. They mostly focus on the movement of various objects around them, separate pitch and sounds, perceive colors and anticipate events such as suckling once they see their mothers nipples. 2) Pre-operational stage also known as toddler or early childhood: Here, the child’s intelligence is demonstrated by the involvement of symbols. It is also associated by development of memory and imaginations, improvement of language, and predomination of opportunistic thinking. However, thinking is demonstrated in an illogical or irreversible manner. Toddlers strive to be independent posing a challenge of their safety to the parents. They also show an understanding of what is appropriate or not. They are knowledgeable on the permanence and displacement of the various objects or people, and starts using different tools and instruments within their reach. 3) Concrete operational stage also referred to as elementary and early adolescence: This stage is characterized by logical interpretation and systematic analysis of symbols that relates to concrete events and objects (Morra, 2008). Reversible mental actions dominate while the egocentric thinking diminishes. At this stage, they acquire imagery, memorizing and social interaction skills. They learn negative actions such as lying, abusing and bullying. 4) Formal operational stage also known as adolescence and adulthood: Abstract concepts and logical application of symbols describe the intelligence in this stage. Formal thinking and a slight demonstration of egocentrism characterize this people. Their judgments on various occurrences are based on their ability to analyze past experiences. School age children are able to think on what is possible and stop limiting their thoughts to what is real. Their thinking is hypothetical. They are able to comprehend abstract ideas in a logical manner,
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Cognitive Development Theory Name Institution Cognitive Development Theory Cognitive development is a process through which an individual builds up thought processes. It begins from the assembly of information by the infants followed by the subsequent construction of thought skills; problem solving; memorizing through adolescence stage to adulthood…
Cognitive development theory Cognitive development refers to changing of thinking patterns over time (Dunkel & Sefcek, n.d). Jean Piaget came up with four stages in cognitive development, which are related to age. The theories focus in childhood, but they have had considerable influence on further research conducted on adult theories.
He wrote a short paper at the age of eleven which acted as the very beginning of his career as a researcher. He pursued studies in natural sciences and in 1918, he obtained a Ph.D. in Zoology from the University of Neuchatel (Cherry 1). He would call himself a genetic epistemologist as he was determined to discover the roots of different forms of knowledge.
Modern day psychologists and theorists dispute the claims that have otherwise been widely accepted and in fact used as the basis of the educational structures practiced today. "Was Piaget right or wrong" is the question we will try to answer within the limits of this essay.
Development of an individual's ability to learn and master intellectual skills is the focus of cognitive development theories. Intellectual growth and development are defined by overall biological and psychological advancement as affected and governed by the surrounding environment.Cognitive development theory works on the premises that the child develops socially as defined by cognitive maturation and experience and that a child actively explores not governed by habits or instincts.
Piaget’s theory provided many central concepts in the field of developmental psychology and concerned the growth of intelligence, which for Piaget, meant the ability to more accurately represent the world, and perform logical operations on representations of concepts grounded in the world.
Cognitive perspective emerged as a reaction to behaviorist views that dominated psychology a century ago. While behaviorists treated human being as a sort of processor responding to external stimuli by producing
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Learning and development are two of the areas psychologists focus on while studying humans. It is with these agendas that Piaget and Vygotsky developed their theories. These theories shed light on some of the mysteries of learning and development. However, the psychologists
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