According to the Collins English Dictionary (2003), formative assessment is the “ongoing assessment of a pupil’s educational development within a particular subject area. Sadler (1999) defines it as the kind of assessment whose intention is to generate feedback so as to improve and enhance students’ learning. This kind of assessment helps development of knowledge, skills and abilities and also enhances understanding without necessarily having to pass any final testing (Black and Wiliam 2003). Formative assessments are learner centered, which means that their goal is to help the student make maximum progress in the learning process. The assessments are appropriate for primary school children as they embrace the educational objective domains of Blooms taxonomy: psychomotor, affective and cognitive. The cognitive domain that is enhanced by formative assessments revolves around the comprehension, knowledge and ability to critically think about a subject. The psychomotor domain is all about the ability of the pupil to physically manipulate instruments in the learning process. The affective domain on the other hand relate to how learners are likely to react emotionally (Sadler 1998). Formative assessments incorporate all three Bloom’s Taxonomy domains in that they allow the pupil to develop not only recall skills, but also critical analysis skills in the learning process. There are two types of formative assessments according to Hall and Burke (2004). These are: planned formative assessments and interactive assessments. As the name suggests, planned formative assessments are those that are use to obtain tangible evidence on the way pupils think about a concept that they have been taught in class. These types of assessments are normally semi-formal and may be taken at the beginning or at the end of a certain topic. In these assessments, some assessment activities are prepared to furnish evidence that can be used to improve pupils’ learning. The information that is elicited from such an activity is used to gauge the level of understanding of the students and to structure instruction so that knowledge and skill development are enhanced (Tuttle 2009). Interactive assessment takes place during the interaction process between teacher and pupil. Hall and Burke (2004) describe this assessment as the one that includes incidental and ongoing assessments which arise from learning activities and it cannot be anticipated. This means that interactive assessments can occur at any time as the teacher and pupils are interacting in a learning setting (Black, Harrison and William 2003). This assessment aims at improving learning through mediation and intervention. The teacher may notice or recognize the learner’s thinking and can then respond to it appropriately. This kind of assessments is considered to be more pupil and teacher driven than it is curriculum driven. Unlike planned assessment that results in permanent information, interactive assessment accrues information that is ephemeral (Sadler 1998). This means that the teacher can identify weak areas in the child’s learning and correct them quickly so as to avoid accumulated misconception on the learner’s side. Formative assessments can be in the form of observations, worksheets, pop quizzes, journals and diagnostic tests. Observation involves the instructor making observations about students’
How Formative Assessment Supports Pupils’ Learning Assessment in the child’s learning process is important as it measures the extent to which the pupil has gained knowledge and understood a particular subject (Tuttle 2009). The nature and manner of assessment has advanced greatly over the years…
141). As a result, teaching and learning has become embroiled in an assessment regime that is focused on measurable outcomes (Maisuria 2005). This approach to learning has come at the expense of creativity and has in the meantime rendered the national curriculum narrow in scope.
They can exploit the grey areas and indulge betterment in teaching processes. They can add innovations in teaching system so that student can get better attainment. Usually it is comprised of qualitative feedback of performance achieved and what was anticipated in the beginning.
Psychological and behavioral studies, however, warn against relying on signs and folk beliefs in detecting learning difficulties. If these patently unscientific methods are made as basis of instructional programs, it will create more harm than good. Thus, many state laws today compel the education sector to use systematic methods of assessment that would measure possible obstacles to learning with more confidence and accuracy.
For this, one needs to employ suitable assessment strategies and necessary and timely feedbacks are to be provided to the learners based on the assessment done. Both formative and summative assessment are to be carried out at the secondary level. There should be provisions for continuous and comprehensive assessment and subsequent feedbacks in the learning process.
It continues with Part Two which is a reflective commentary on what ever learning I had throughout the duration of the MSc year and relating the same with any relevant literature on reflective learning and
However, cognition, itself, is categorized into knowledge, comprehension, application, analysis, synthesis, and evaluation (Kyriacou, pp.22, 1997). From among these divisions, the activity of questioning propels the minds to go through a
Unlike other teachers, the teacher used to give practical examples and engage each student in a direct manner during all teaching sessions. I vividly recall the personal consultations that I had with the teacher, efforts that helped me