The discovery of the DNA in the 19th century is regarded as one of the most significant biological discoveries of all time. The understanding of the structure and functions of DNA has impacted considerably in the science and medicine fields, with the most noteworthy impact being illustrated in the evolution of man. The discovery of the DNA has since made possible the identification of genes, which in turn permits scientists to acquire more knowledge and perception about the nature of diseases. Consecutively, this has made it permissible for the scientists to be able to diagnosis diseases easily, and by so doing makes it possible to the create drugs to treat these diseases, a quest which is regarded as a fundamental element in the evolution of mankind.
In biology, Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is the genetic factor found in human beings and other life forms and the DNA elements that support this matter are referred to as genes. Nearly all the cells in a creature have similar DNA, the majority of it being centralized in the cell nucleus where it is referred to as nuclear DNA (Neale, 2006). Conversely, we note that trace amounts of DNA are found in the mitochondria which are termed as mitochondrial DNA or basically mtDNA. In DNA data is stored in codes comprising of four chemical elements, namely: adenine (A), guanine (G), cytosine(C) and thymine (T) (Watson, 2004). Nevertheless, we comprehend that, in human beings, DNA comprises of more than a billions elements, which are more often than not similar in all humans. The orders in which these elements appear establish the availability of elements to build and sustain a being which can be likened to the order of letters that form different words and sentences. The four DNA elements merge in a predetermined sequence, in that, A binds with T while C binds with G which results in the arrangement of elements termed as base ...Show more