One of the error patterns I have encountered is that students forget basic addition, especially for additions involving whole number 1 to 9. For example, when one of the addends is 0, I have seen some students put 0 as the sum, which is obviously a rule for multiplication. Some consider adding 0 as similar to adding 1 to the other addend, thereby increasing the number by 1. Another common error I have encountered is when students add a multi-digit addend to a single-digit addend, some calculate for the sum of the individual digits together. Some add the single-digit to each of the digits of the multi-digit addend. Some get confused with place-values, thus adding the ones to the tens, and so on. Some even make up a new rule in addition by adding all the numbers in the ones position then placing the sum under the tens. This is followed by calculating the sum of all the numbers in the tens position, and then placing the sum under the ones. ...

Some students also do subtraction by forgetting proper renaming and borrowing. Place-values are also sometimes not used properly. This is common especially in multi-digit minuends and single-digit subtrahends. Forgetting to put proper marks when renaming is also common. This causes several mistakes in the subtraction processes. Sometimes, students tend to subtract from left to right. However, this is not easy to observe since, just like in addition, this is only apparent when renaming is required in the equation. Another very common error pattern I have observed in the students is renaming involving one or a series of 0s. It is interesting to note that students who demonstrate a certain error pattern in subtraction is more likely to have the same error pattern in addition. This gets me to thinking again of the forgotten relationship between addition and subtraction. Furthermore, although in higher grade levels, use of calculators is very much allowed, sometimes even encouraged, this could cause a further setback in students' number sense. This could cause them to practice paper and pencil and mental computations less often, which would make them forget the basics even more. I have reflected, based on the planning instruction in this chapter and personal experiences with my students, that number sense could play a big part in helping the students realize their wrong answers. Students sometimes give answers to subtraction equations that are glaringly incorrect. If a student has a strong number sense, merely looking at the answer would tell them if they need to rethink and check their mathematical process. CHAPTER REFLECTIONS 4
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