Review Of Literature - Research Proposal Example

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Review Of Literature

In contrast to elementary schools, students at middle schools are expected to be independent with respect to the arrangement of their study material, plan the tasks provided to them, keep track of their material and their schedule, meet deadlines and therefore exhibit specific organizational abilities (Salend, 1998). The present section aims to explore the available literature investigating the expectations of teachers’ from students with learning disability (LD), with special reference to the expectations of teachers’ regarding active participation of students with learning disabilities. Initiation of studies exploring the impact of teachers’ expectations on the performance levels of students with LD can be traced back to 1970s. The earliest studies established the negative effects of labels such as ‘mentally retarded’ leading to the development of ‘learned helplessness’. On the basis of early investigations the demarcations and differences in attitudes were clearly established. While lack of achievement in regular students was considered to be as a consequence of lack of effort; the same in case of LD students was attributed to lack of ability. This is in congruence with the attribution theory, which asserts that success or failure in an endeavor can be attributed to ‘sin or sickness’ that is the ‘efforts’ and the ‘ability or disability’. ...Show more

Summary

REVIEW OF LITERATURE Available literature and the studies conducted have been clearly in support of the impact of teacher’s expectations on the organizational skills and consequently achievement levels of the students in general; with studies describing ‘Pygmalion Effect’, ‘self-fulfilling prophecy’, and ‘expectancy effect’…
Author : carrollvivienne
Review Of Literature essay example
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