Critical Analysis of a Historical Science Example Name: Institution: Critical Analysis of a Historical Science Example Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is the genetic factor in human beings and other life forms. The DNA components that support this material are referred to as genes…
In DNA data is stored in codes consisting four chemical elements: adenine (A), guanine (G), cytosine(C) and thymine (T) (Watson, 2004). However, we realize that, in human beings, DNA consists of more than a billion elements, which are mostly similar in all humans. The order in which these elements appear determines the availability of elements to build and sustain a being. This can be likened to the order of letters that forms different words and sentences. The four DNA elements combine in a predetermined sequence, that is, A binds with T while C binds with G. This results in the arrangement of elements called base pairs. The ratio of adenine to thymine, and guanine to cytosine govern the pattern of DNA. Further, each element attaches itself to a sugar molecule and phosphate molecule to form a nucleotide. These nucleotides are then aligned in two strands to form a double helix, which is spiral in shape running in an anti-parallel manner. These arrangements are referred to as chromosomes, which during the process of DNA replication, divide and are copied or replicated to develop more chromosomes. This results in all cells consisting enough chromosomes to support life fully. The key element of DNA is that it is capable of replicating itself to make millions of copies. A DNA strand in a double helix is the prototype for copying the series of bases. This is of paramount importance in cell division as the newly created cells need to obtain a similar DNA trait as the old cell. DNA together with macromolecules such as proteins, lipids and carbohydrates are essential in the establishment and maintenance of any life form, RNA viruses being the exception. The genetic code is the system used in reading the material contained in DNA. The genetic code spells out plan of amino acids which form proteins in the body and is studied by replicating existing DNA strands to RNA acid. This is done through a process referred to as transcription. Beings such as animals, fungi and plants, also referred to as eukaryotic organisms gather their DNA in the nucleus, mitochondria or chloroplast of their cells. On the other hand, beings such as bacteria and other single celled organisms commonly referred to as prokaryotes collect their DNA in the cytoplasm. The organization and packing of DNA in cells is tasked upon alkaline based proteins referred to as chromatin. These proteins include histones. Hydrogen bonds between nucleotides help to stabilize DNA; however, we note that interfacing nucleobases in a process referred to as base-stacking is also essential in steadying the DNA helixes. There are two classes of nucleobases, these are: purines which are formed when A and G are combined in the ratio of five to six and pyrimidines formed when six C and T bases combine (Watson, 2004). Biotechnicians examine the characteristics if nuclear based acids through a technology referred to as nucleic acid analogues. These techniques are typically used by medical and biology researchers. Furthermore, we note that the arrangement of DNA is referred to as sense which is copied to its RNA and, on the other hand, antisense is the term used to refer to the arrangement of DNA on the reverse side. However, it is common for both sense and antisense to appear in a single strand of DNA. RNA antisenses are churned out in prokaryotes and eukaryotes, these RNA antisenses are mandated with controlling gene expression in the process of RNA-RNA base pairing which is quite similar to the base pairing process in DNA ...
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