In this study, two pieces of research into issues in education are used to compare and contrast the approaches used in terms of establishment of a theoretical basis. Backgrounds on the Studies The first study is by Philips (2002, pp. 409-414) who investigated the underrepresentation of women in the engineering profession in the UK. The study identifies the imagery and cultural stereotyping affecting the educational decisions and choices made by girls and young women as being responsible for the issue. The researcher embeds his study in the social construction of gender as her theoretical framework and argues that domination of engineering practice by men results in the field becoming masculine out of societal perceptions. Citing criticism of positivist approaches to social research, the researcher uses a qualitative approach, undertaking an interview-based methodology to achieve inter-objective understanding. The study sampled 15 participants drawn from female engineers already training and working in the UK. The second study is by Archer, Halsall and Hollingworth (2007, pp. 165-180) investigating the disengagement from education of inner-city, ethnically diverse working class girls due to their construction of hetero-femininities. The researchers are of the opinion that construction of identity and values based on heterosexual femininities by girls contributes to their disengagement from education and schooling, and address the paradoxes that arise when such hetero-feminist constructions spill over to oppressive power relations. The study itself was qualitative, involving in-depth interviews, focus groups and some photo diaries. It sampled young people across 6 urban London secondary schools aged between 14 and 16. The interviews were undertaken 3-4 times in two years and involved interviews with the staff. Theoretical Frameworks of the Studies Gerring (2001, pp. 8-9) discusses the absolute importance of basing social research on sound theoretical frameworks. Social research without these bases is inconceivable as they provide the guidelines used by scholars to define and refine their studies. They specify interconnected questions and hypotheses that then guide the researcher in establishing his/her study. Philips (2002, p. 410) selects social construction of gender over feminist theories such as standpoint perspective in explaining that the predominance of males in the engineering profession as a main contributory factor to under-representation of females in engineering education and practice. A self perpetuating stereotypical perception is created among people that engineering is a masculine field due to the prominence of men in the engineering practice. The masculine orientation of the field and thus education is maintained by these prevailing social and sexual stereotypes, and confirm the views that science and technology are an essential aspect of masculinity in the modern day. Basing on this theoretical context, the under-representation of women in the engineering education is explained by the perceptions of young women that engineering is a masculine field and thus they chose not to study it. It is thus important to break the perception if at all gender balance is to be achieved in the engineering education and practice. In contrast, Archer, Halsall and Hollingworth (2007, p. 167) underpin their study on two
The Nature of Research Methods: Comparison and Contrast through Education Research Whether in objective or subjective social inquiry, the importance of the method used by the researcher cannot be overstated. In qualitative social research, the method is usually at the center of establishing a theoretical understanding of the issue being investigated by the researcher…
Most authors in gender studies say that they reject a biology based concept of sex, refuse to use the latter term and claim that they are interested in gender as a social construction. The social construction process is complex, multifaceted and heterogeneous.
The dearth of women in scientific careers continues despite attempts by educators and legislators alike to equalize this prevailing gender gap. Research still attempts to find a definitive empirical explanation for women’s absence from the sciences. A recent column in the New York Times highlighted the findings of a Duke University study wherein the researchers reported that “our data clearly show that there are sex differences in cognitive abilities in the extreme right tail, with some favoring males and some favoring females.
This will include an analysis of how men and women communicate differently through the use of verbal and non-verbal cues and also take into account how cultural differences influence men and women to act and communicate. In order to achieve this purpose, several scenes from a recent episode of Modern Family will be examined and the communication tendencies of the characters will be identified and discussed.
Anna Lætitia Barbauld describes the shaveows of gender lines in “Washing-Day.” Charlotte Smith understands that the cycle of life ensures death and renewal in “Sonnet Written at the Close of Spring.” Madame Tussaud informs these literary works because they stress the impermanence of human societies and conditions, particularly gender, social and political lines and question the existence of injustices and discriminations.
Which of the first 10 amendments is the most important? The US Constitution document was adopted in 1787 to replace the Articles of Confederation signed by the 13 states after independence in 1783. The draft constitution needed to be ratified by at least 9 of the 13 states.
As Anti-oppressive practice of different legal and societal orientations, involve practitioners in actively seeking opportunities to challenge and undermine sexism, racism, ageism, disabilism and other forms of oppression and discrimination. This study suggests the practitioner to adopt a critical views of the institutions within which they work.
Gender psychology has been an interesting aspect of the study of the human psyche since time immemorial. While the thirties demonstrated an air of opposition towards psychoanalysis, there was still scope for the movement to establish psychology as a 'true' science with rigorously tested theories to evolve and thrive.
morale, working environment and firm) is really like, furthermore, why it appears to vary between different sites, as per the Board of Directors instruction. As a result, it is required to prepare a proposal for the authorities to present a case to the Board to address their
In the same way that pathways to crime differ by gender is the same way how resistance to crime differs, but with employment being the key mechanism in both genders. From the research conducted on reformed ex- prisoners pertaining to
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