As stated above, hegemony and education are closely related. Hegemony presents itself in various fields including cultural, religious, and regional studies. In the past, hegemony was closely associated with political and military rule of states. However, in the 20th century, it was centered on cultural hegemony. This concept was invented by Antonio Gramsci, a Marxist scholar (Roger, 1991). The concept was known as the cultural domination theory which is an analysis of the economic class. Therefore, the sociological and philosophical theories are an analysis of the norms that form social structures (Raymond, 1977).
Elementary education is also known as primary education. It is usually a period of at least 8 years of schooling from age five or six (Brandt, 1986). However, this varies depending on the country that the learner is located in. The politico-military connection in the ruling of a subordinate society encourages cultural and social tasks that are quite non-beneficial and deviant to the members of the society (Roger, 1991). These social, cultural and political issues are of significant effect in the elementary curriculum. In the elementary education level, both the learners and the staff are affected by the socio-cultural and economic factors. For example, elementary tutors face formidable challenges in their work. In the contemporary world, many elementary teachers are subjected to demands in the philosophy of education, standardized assessment of their teaching skills, and school organization.
In general, critical pedagogy shows that there is unequal social stratification in the society (21st Century Schools, 2010). It is based on gender, race, and social class which are evident through the military and political rule in a social setup. At the elementary educational level, the learners are to be taught effectively to achieve a positive outcome in the society in the future. However, the hegemonic control over ...Show more