Introduction Learning is associated in the field of education and psychology, which is pertained to as the process between the interdependence of one’s cognitive, emotional and environmental stimulus. It is also attributed to a person’s experiences in regards to attaining, developing, and modifying skills, values and perspectives (Harlen, 2006)…
In most cases, learning theories are based on two functions: (1) the first serves as a framework that provides people a specific set of vocabulary as a means to interpret observations; and (2) implications as to how one can find elucidation to realistic problems. It is important to note that these theoretical assumptions do not provide solutions to the complex process of learning, rather, it focuses on the key principles in which people must concentrate on and analyze as a means of identifying resolutions (Harlen, 2007). Learning Theories On the perspective of the academe, learning theories can be categorized into three groups, namely: behaviorist; humanistic; and cognitive. Learning theories classified under the behaviorist perspective tackles a personification of positivistic method towards learning that can be characterized as scientific or systemic. It mainly focuses on the objective approach in regards to the discernible facets of learning (Harlen, 2006). On the other hand, the humanistic approach is in accordance with one’s values, which serves as the driver that empowers and liberates an individual. The third type is cognitive, which can be considered as the staple form of learning through utilizing one’s mind (Vosniadou, 2001). ...
The learning theory of constructivism lies between the humanistic and cognitive approach, as it involves the learner to generate new thoughts and concepts based on the information available (Hart, Dixon, Drummond & MacIntyre, 2004). Behaviorism This theory has been formulated by B.F. Skinner, elaborating on three principles in the aspect of learning which are as follows: (1) learning is associated with behavior modifications; (2) environment molds one’s behavior; and (3) learning is based on contiguity and reinforcement, basically focusing on the difference between the period of two conditions in order for a learning process to be established (Kim & Axelrod, 2005). The latter pertains to the events or actions that would increase the probability that a situation would happen again. In essence, this type of learning theory focuses on the premise that learning is the process of acquiring new behavior through the process of habituation or conditioning. Habituation can be classified into two types, which are (1) classical conditioning and (2) operant conditioning (Gibbons, 2004). The context of classical conditioning follows the premise that an individual’s behavior is a spontaneous effect to a stimulus. A stimulus triggers a specific response, and once this trigger is often repeated, it forms learning. An example of classical conditioning is the experiment carried out in regards to Pavlov’s dogs, wherein Pavlov identified that triggered the dog’s drooling (Harlen, 2006).Through assessing the correlation of the dog’s responses with specific factors, it was found that the dogs drooled when they knew that they were about to eat- which were initially triggered by the coat worn ...
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