Shreeve (2008) presented literature on educational models that are designed to solicit active participation from learners. The lecture-based learning (LBL) is the conventional method wherein information are conveyed through lecture and objective examinations (Shreeve, 2008). Critics of LBL presented that most students does not exhibit true learning, instead, they are more concerned on passing the objective examinations (Shreeve, 2008). On the other hand, adult-based learning (ABL) serves the purpose of imparting knowledge based on the adult’s need (Shreeve, 2008). Through recognition of the relevance of the topic to their lives, the adult learner can be more diligent in studying (“Adult Learning”). Another model cited by Shreeve (2008) is the problem-based learning (PBL), wherein the emphasis is on the adults as participants. In this model, the teacher acts as a simple coordinator, while the students are the ones responsible for initiating, diagnosing and concluding the discussions (Shreeve, 2008). While the three models mentioned mostly dealt with people discussions and lectures, another model has its foundation based on experience. A Professor of Organizational Behavior, David Kolb formed experiential learning theory (ELT) in consideration to the works of renowned theorists Piaget, Dewey, and Lewin (Smith, 2001). ELT highlights the learner’s experience instead of focusing on the instructor (Shreeve, 2008). Another educational model which is relatively new, as described by Shreeve (2008) is Appreciative Inquiry (AI). In this method, a cycle is implemented wherein the learners are entitled to participate in a discussion. This method closely resembles PBL and ELT, the difference is that AI is leaned more on the positive side of every discussion (Shreeve, 2008). It also identifies the past and is more focused on developing potentials.
Through examination of all educational models,