This chapter looks at the literature that is related to the understanding of inclusion within education. It involves a consideration of disabilities, government laws and the support of inclusion. It will also look into teachers’ attitudes towards inclusion and the observed social behaviour of children within an inclusive class…
Vygotsky, a world-renowned psychologist hypothesized that “a child whose development is impeded by a defect is not simply a child less developed than his peers but is a child who has developed differently” (Vygotsky, 1993, p.67). He further emphasized that “what made development different for those with mind and body differences was the intellectual and social compensatory processes in which they were powerfully motivated to engage in order to be part of their social milieu.” (in McPhail & Freeman, 2005).
Vygotsky claims: “In the final analysis, what decides the fate of a personality is not the defect itself, but its social consequences, its socio-psychological realization” (Vygotsky, 1993, p. 68). This prompts parents and teachers suspecting children of having special education needs to go for professional diagnosis for that particular child. This is an important step towards optimal development. A very recent BBC news report claims that “early intervention will improve the lives of vulnerable children and help break the cycle of "dysfunction and under-achievement". (Sellgren, 2011, para.1). To determine if a child has special education needs, it should first be evaluated if he has a developmental disability: A broad definition of a developmental disability is a condition or disorder—physical, cognitive, or emotional—that has the potential to significantly affect the typical progress of a child’s growth and development or substantially limits three or more major life activities including self-care, language, learning, mobility, self-direction, capacity for independent living, and/or economic self-sufficiency (Federal Developmental Disabilities Act of 1984). Collating observations the child, teachers and parents may be reviewed by a special education needs coordinator or SENCO. This is the person responsible for implementing the SEN Code of Practice. He or She is primarily responsible for assessing, planning, monitoring and reviewing child’s provision and progress (Teaching Expertise B, 2010). As such, the SENCO will be able to support the child’s teachers in the provision of special education needs for him by way of providing in-service staff training, setting effective targets for the child and creating an Individualized Educational Plan (IEP) with the school teachers and key staff to suit his needs (Teaching Expertise B, 2010). The SENCO can design interventions that take a graduated approach. He/She may come up with a team of specialists to work together to meet the child’s special needs. “Multi-agency working is essentially about bringing together practitioners with a range of skills to work across their traditional service boundaries” (Every Child Mattters: Changes for Children). A multi-disciplinary team of special needs educators, therapists, psychologists, speech pathologists, physicians, social workers and even government officials may join hands in the care and education of children with special needs to ensure their optimum growth and development (Teaching Expertise A, 2010). Coordinating with a SENCO is in compliance with the Children’s Act 2004, the legislative support of Every Child Matters programme. This act aims to “improve and integrate children's services, promote early intervention, provide strong leadership and bring together different professionals in multi-disciplinary teams in order achieve positive outcomes for children and young people and their families” (DfEs Children Act and Reports, 2004). The five key outcomes set out in Every ...
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The main questions that guided this study: How is inclusion implemented in a UK school? What are the views regarding the blending of mainstream children and children with special needs in their classes? Are there any differences in treatment and the given educational programmes for mainstream children and children with special needs within the inclusive classroom?
In the economically inferior states, the main concern has to be with the masses of teenagers who never get to see the inside of a school let alone the classrooms. For the meantime, in more affluent countries countless young individuals leave school with no valuable diplomas, despite the fact that others are to be found in a number of forms of unusual provision away from conventional learning practices, and various simply decide on to give up since the schoolings seem neither here nor there to their lives.
However, breakthroughs in educational research has pushed individuals to acknowledge the practice of inclusion as viable intervention in supporting the development of special needs children who are placed in inclusive classrooms. This paper will endeavor to report on explorative research on inclusion in primary schools in the United Kingdom.
Education is primarily recognised with schooling, but in broader concept it is much beyond that of simple schooling. In the United Kingdom (UK), apart from schooling, the education is also concerned with the logical, the rational and the social development of people.
Talk for reading and writing Use of talk for reading and writing is a process meant to make the students, enjoy writing and find it satisfying and stimulating their creativity, read widely and comprehend the characteristics of good writing, understand the various genres and types of texts, learn writing from reading, speak the mind out by appropriately and meaningfully addressing the audience, learn to construct and shape the ideas, learn to plan writing, learn to reflect upon the work with an intention to improve it, and take others’ criticisms positively and respond to them adequately.
If the Primary School Teachers have not studied the ICT themselves then the learning environment between the teacher and the pupil will be inept Forcheri, P., & Molfino. (Forcheri & Molfino, 2000, p. 178). The Primary teacher will be lacking in resourceful learning control from the pupils who will in turn resort to non-educative ICT adventures.
Teaching begins at an early age of the child development, the teaching school being classified as early childhood development, the children are first enrolled in baby class, then to pre unit and lastly to the nursery school. The next level of their education is the primary school.
According to the report word and language games assume immense potential to develop and enhance vocabulary. They provide students with the easiest and most interesting way to energize their creative abilities. Teachers commonly use such techniques involving a lot of classroom communication to capture the interest and attention of students.
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