There is considerable evidence that children readiness for kindergarten is enhanced in prekindergarten programs (Vygotsky, 1962). The program characteristics are critical since huge tax revenues have been invested in those programs. The study explored whether profile membership was linked to gains in school readiness in prekindergarten years (Vygotsky, 1962). High quality prekindergarten programs lead to better child outcomes. Constructivist theory provides that an adult should provide children with rich materials to promote self exploration while socio-cultural theory requires responsive interactions with children. Child care environmental quality assessments include play activities, relationships and peer play (Howes, 2000). It is important to conduct beyond environment child assessments to classroom engagement since a meta-analysis of 20 relational studies shows measures of child-care quality and school outcomes are weakly linked (r= 0.12). A person-centered approach considers the entire child engagement by placing children in to profiles. Socio dramatic play develops problem solving skills, and constructive play aids children learn symmetry (Smith, 1996). A second model asserts that children learn from tutor instructions such as feedbacks, discussions and instructions. A third category is the children who learn from teacher scaffolding (Wood, Bruner & Ros, 1976). Free play children might develop language and spatial skills according to the existing literature while children dependent on teacher instructions will develop skills such as writing names and knowing names since they are less likely to be learned through free play (Wood, Bruner & Ros, 1976). Children who use teacher scaffolding develop literacy skills. Children from low income have little access to rich materials thus benefit more from direct instructions and feedbacks unlike children from middle-income families who benefit from their own initiated child-play (Hamre & Pianta, ...
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In this paper, current practices related to the use of oral sucrose in the relief of pain in preterm infants will be reviewed and compared based on the methods and validity of the results. Furthermore, implications for the current guidelines will also be discussed along with the knowledge gaps that require further research.
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