As the mind starts to grow up and gathers information from the outside world (unconditioned stimuli), the behavior of the child starts to shape (conditioned response). By considering the consequences of the experiments discussed in this paper, it can be stated that behaviors are derived from perception and therefore, it can be stated that unconditioned stimuli leads to conditioned response.
The fundamental principle upon which behaviorism operates is ‘stimulus-response’. Its basic concept states that all behaviors are caused primarily by external stimuli. Behaviorism assumes that a learner is, in essence, a passive subject which responds to external stimuli. Under the theory of behaviorism, it is believed that at birth, human mind is tabula rasa which means a clean slate and behavior is shaped as soon as the mind starts to conceive external information and stimuli. These external stimuli can be either positive or negative. Both negative and positive reinforcement increase the tendency and probability that this certain behavior will occur again. In contrast to this, punishment reduces the likelihood that the certain behavior will occur again. Learning, therefore, is defined as change in subject’s behavior. Lots of early experiments were done to animals and generalized to humans (Learning Theories Knowledgebase, 2012).
Classical conditioning is the fundamental response to stimuli. It is that conditioning in which a programmed or conditioned stimuli is paired with unconditioned stimulus until the conditioned stimulus becomes sufficient enough to educe the response
Operant conditioning has the basic notion of responding to the results of our actions. Operant conditioning is that component of the theory in which behavior is strengthened when reinforcement is done and weakened when punishment is done.
In 1927, Watson and Rayner performed a study in which a 9 month old boy to whom they called