Does Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs Feature in a Primary School Teacher’s Considerations with Regards to their Pupils? Introduction The way in which humans develop has been the subject of psychological research for many decades. Many theories and approaches examine this with differing, often contrasting views as to what the drivers and important factors are…
This essay will examine the theory of humanism in child development with relation to learning and education. Humanism was first developed in the 1960s by prominent authors Maslow and Rogers. Many aspects of this approach are still relevant today. In particular, this essay will consider Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs as well as whether this is followed in practice and what criticism and contrasting theories exist. This theory has been applied in many different applications since its development and continues to be well used into the present day. Theories of Development There are a number of different theories that examine the way in which children learn and develop in educational environments . Prominent among these are behaviourism, constructivism, cognitivism, theories of social interaction and humanistic theories. Behavioural theory is determinalistic, and believes that the learner is a passive entity that responds solely to changes in environmental stimuli. Under constructivism, learning is viewed as an active process while cognitive theories do not consider learning to be a change in behaviour, but rather a process through which new information is acquired . Humanism is an approach to learning and education that has been present since the 1960s. It was developed as a contrast to approaches such as behaviourism and cognitivism, both of which are heavily determinalistic. Humanists believe that the way in which an individual behaves is related to who they are internally, their feelings and concept of self. The approach assumes that humans are essentially good, and that growth and fulfilment are a predominant human motive. Humanism has resulted in many scientific advances in the understanding of human behaviour, and in particular, advances in professional practice . Humanism was initially developed for education by two prominent authors in the 1960’s and subsequently became an established movement within American psychology. These authors were Carl Rogers and Abraham Maslow and their views are thought to be relevant in education today. It has been argued that the current problems experienced in education are largely related to a failure to address the concerns that the authors raised . Rogers argues that in the present time traditional schooling methods are failing as people need a higher level of expertise in today’s world than was needed in the past, and there is a greater need to understand how and why something occurs than ever before. He focuses on the idea of person-centred learning, where the process of learning is the most important factor and the outcome is secondary. At the time of writing, more than 95 percent of activities within schools were selected by teachers, and Rogers considers that students having input in the activities that are undertaken is an essential component of effective learning. . The idea of person-centred learning that Rogers forwarded has become an effective approach in psychotherapy and counselling and is used frequently in modern times. However, his approach has not been widely adopted in schools. Maslow forwarded the idea that human motivation is the result of people seeking to grow and looking for fulfilment or self-actualisation. He produced a ...
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Consequently,with emerging complexities, leadership became a pertinent issue. Thus, managerial theory was developed to help managers deal with the complexities around running an organization (Fleet & Peterson, 1994, p. 14). Management refers to the science or art of goal realization through people.
The importance of effective human resource management (HRM) has been recognised by virtually any company which follows western standards of business. If an organisation fails to properly and effectively manage its human resources in the right areas of the business, at the right time and at the right cost, serious inefficiencies are likely to arise creating considerable operational difficulties and likely business failure (Beardwell, Claydon & Holden, 2003).
Once the biological need is fulfilled, the person will want to have safe environment and so on. Once one of the needs is fulfilled, its importance decreases and the desire for another need is activated. The other needs mentioned in the data are not directly related to the Maslow's hierarchy of needs but we can associate them within that hierarchy for example the transcendence need can be put into the self actualization need of the Maslow's hierarchy.
The second set of needs is related to safety and enables a society to function properly. The third layer of needs deals with the fulfillment of social needs, such as friendship, relationships, clubs, religious group, which creates a feeling of being wanted and accepted by members of a society.
This theory by Maslow was given in 1943 and was known as the ‘hierarchy of -needs’. It gave a general overview about the needs and wants of the individuals living in the world and how these needs and wants change through
Health, property and employment fall under the security needs (Orthmann & Karen 298). Sexual intimacy, friendship and family fall under belongingness and love. Confidence, self-esteem and respect by others fall under esteem (Orthmann & Karen 8).
The physiological needs represent the first level and include food, sleep, and water. The second level encompasses the safety needs such as order, security, and stability. The two levels are crucial for the physical survival of humans. Lauby (2005) argues that people
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