Focus will be on Brofenbrenner’s Ecological Model which links development to the child’s various factors in the environment that influence the child’s experiences, learning and growth. The selected developmental stage to be discussed in this paper is the early childhood stage (age 2-6 years). In order to have a clearer picture of early child development, other theoretical frameworks by Piaget, Erikson, Freud, Maslow, Vygotsky and Bowlby shall also be referred to in conjunction with Brofenbrenner’s model as the theoretical framework of this paper. If applicable, the significance of the theory to early childhood children shall be discussed especially if the theory describes certain developmental stages. Brofenbrenner’s Ecological Model (1979) explains that the behaviour and development of an individual is an interplay of the individual’s biological and personality factors, his environment and the society and culture he was born into. Brofenbrenner also claims that effects of interactions between the individual and his environment are two-directional or characterized by reciprocity. This means that while a child’s development is influenced and moulded by his family, school and peers, he likewise influences and moulds the behaviour of others. The growing child moves through five systems that inter-relate and affect his development, namely, the microsystem, mesosystem, exosystem, macrosystem and chronosystem. The most basic ecological level is the microsystem, where direct contacts between the child and his immediate surroundings result in behaviours such as dependence or independence and cooperation or competition. An example of this is the home base of the child and his relationship with his family. The pure culture of the society the family lives in greatly influences how the family lives and how the child imbibes the culture as he expresses it in his developing personality. The microsystem is usually where the child first develops attachments to his significant others like his parents. John Bowlby’s (1982) Attachment theory posit that attachment provides children with a sense of security, promotes communication and the expression of feelings and becomes a secure base for children to discover their world and eventually learn self-regulation and self-control. It is a devise that contributes to children’s developing sense of self. Research done by Rudolph Schaffer (1977) and Jerome Bruner (1977) yielded the concept of ‘joint involvement episodes’ (JIE’s) which may be related to the quality of attachment a child and his or her mother or significant other has. The researchers observed mothers’ and their babies’ behaviour while focused on a potential learning episode. While jointly involved in play, for instance, they fall into a turn-taking pattern of behaviour and such cooperation teaches the child about the rules of their play within a safe and secure environment with a familiar adult. This gives him more courage to explore his world knowing he has a safe base to return to. The next level of Brofenbrenner’s Ecological model is the mesosystem, which comprises the linkages and processes that take place between two or more settings with the child in common. A perfect example is how learning in school is supported by follow up lessons in the home. At this level, the child gets to understand associations between people and things.
Child Development Theories in Focus As evolution progresses, more and more scholars come up with theories of human development. Child development, specifically, is of utmost interest to parents and educators because they want to understand how a child grows in all developmental aspects so they can deal with the changes appropriately and provide the best conditions to meet the growing children’s needs…
Cognitive development in children is associated with a series of changes in their internal development of the brain and the perception of things in their environment. It includes the changes that they experience in gaining intelligence from the environment, their ability to remember events in their memory.
Conclusion: Similarities and Differences Theories on Child and Adolescent Development I. Introduction Human experiences involve a “lifelong process of human development, which can be studied scientifically and empirically,” in which people undergoes a continuous growth in terms of the three areas in human growth, and these are physical area, cognitive area, and psychosocial area (Papalia, Olds, & Feldman, 2007, p.
But according to general view developmental periods can be classified like this: From zero to age of one month is newborn, infant period is between ages of one month to one year, ages between one to three years are toddler, preschooler is between four to six years, between six to thirteen ages is school aged child, and the adolescent age is between thirteen to twenty years.
However, approaches towards measuring cognitive development amongst infants and toddlers have been varied to the extent that suggestions’ proposing that thinking from these groups is significantly different from that of pre-schoolers and other young children (Chen & Siegler, 2000).
The growth of a child, from early childhood to young adulthood, encompasses a period when many biological, emotional and psychological changes occur and this is a crucial time for them. This is why there are theories being advanced regarding child development and the best ways on how to achieve the goals of helping a child develop from dependence to independence or autonomy.
According to the paper child development theories are divided in number of classes depending on how the theories are articulated. Some theories are called grand theories; they try to explain every aspect of a child’s development. Others are mini theories that focus on a limited number of aspects on the child development process, which includes the social growth or cognitive growth theories.
Psychology may be construed to refer to the scientific study of the mental functions and the general behaviour of an individual. It ventures into various aspects such as personality, perception, behaviour, recognition, emotion etc. Many branches of psychology do exist but our major concern here is the branch called developmental psychology.
78). The child has been attending pre-school for some time and has registered multiple developmental changes, which can be categorized as personal and social development as well as the advances in language (Barnes 2004, p.
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