Organ Transplantation/Replacement Technologies" Definition of the problem One of the leading causes of disability followed by death involves failure of organ(s) to function in an appropriate manner. Major organs like heart, lungs, liver, kidneys and pancreas play vital roles in the metabolic processes, survival and proliferation of an individual…
With the increase in the life expectancy and survival of the humans, organ transplantation is in great demand. Numerous technologies are looming to meet the growing demand of organs for transplantation, encompassing stem cells, cell culture, tissue engineering, cloning of cells and xenotransplantation. Still the prerequisites are not fulfilled by these technologies as the demand is far more as compared to the supply of organs for transplantation, moreover, the demand is growing largely (Cascalho & Platt, 2005). What is an organ transplantation? An organ transplantation encompasses a surgical operation where the damaged organ is replaced by a healthy one. It is a broad terminology that refers to the transplantation of solid organs like kidneys, lungs, heart, pancreas, intestines, cornea transplantation, bone marrow and liver transplantation. The sources of organs could be cadaveric organs or from the living person (Cascalho & Platt, 2005). Replacement of the organ is required because of numerous ailments. For instance kidneys, which are the most imperative organ as it plays vital role in the elimination of waste and toxic chemicals, therefore they are vulnerable for damage. Majority of the organ replacement or transplantation cases require kidney transplantation. The illnesses that lead to kidney damage encompass diabetes, polycystic kidney disease, lupus etc. Similarly, excessive alcohol consumption may lead to the cirrhosis of liver, cirrhosis can also occur due to hepatitis or other related diseases and thereby requires liver transplantation. Heart transplantation is required in case of coronary artery disease, cardiomyopathy or heart failure. In case of diabetes pancreas replacement is required for the appropriate insulin production. Lung replacement is required in cases like cystic fibrosis or COPD while small intestine requires replacement due to short bowel syndrome, Crohn's disease or other related diseases. In certain cases more than one organ is to be replaced and it is successfully done for the heart and lung transplantation. There are certain tests which determine the eligibility for the organ transplantation (Organ Transplant). Research studies are going on to understand the reasons responsible for the transplantation failure along with a better approaches towards health, nutrition and treatment paradigms. These paradigms in future may possibly reduce the requirement of organ transplantation and enhance the longevity of the organs and the individual (Organ Transplant). History Organ Transplantation The history of organ transplantation could be traced from 1954, when the first organ transplantation was performed by Dr. Joseph Murray and Dr. David Hume at Brigham Hospital, Boston, they transplanted kidney. This was followed by a successful transplantation of lung by Dr James Hardy in 1963, at the University of Mississippi Medical Center. The trend was followed by pancreas and kidney transplantation in 1966 by Dr. Richard Lillehei and Dr. William Kelly at the University of Minnesota in Minneapolis. This was followed by the first successful liver transplantation by Dr Thomas Starzl at the University of Colorado in Denver in the year 1967. The revolution in the history of organ transplantation was brought by the most popular heart transplantation performed by Dr. Christiaan Barnard at Groote Schuur Hospital in South Africa in the ...
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Organ transplantation is considered as one of the most significant contributions of medical science to the human race. It is a medical procedure that is defined as the ‘surgical removal of an organ from one person to another person’ which is needed in situations such as organ failure or organ damage caused by illness or injury.
The United Network for Organ Sharing, as well as the transplant centers is considered the governing body for organ distribution. Their function includes the crucial determination of organ procurement and distribution as supported by the ethical principles of distributive justice.
The main goal of research in these two fields is to get a deeper understanding of the cell linage. Research on stem cells has opened up a new field of cell based therapies which are capable of treating a variety of diseases through the replacement of the cells.
The clinical and experimental transplantation was extensively exploited in the early 1950s and the first two decades of the 20th century. Joseph Murray and colleagues performed the first successful renal transplant in 1954 at Boston, USA. With no effective immunosuppressant therapies, Murray was aware that tissue rejection would complicate matters for the recipient; therefore in order to minimize the chances of rejection Murray performed the transplantation between monozygotic twins.
According to the paper organ transplant is a health science concept which involve donation of a given organ by another organism to another who has a problem to the extent of dysfunction or malfunction of a similar organ. With the inception of this science there has been a steady rise in emerging issues that if not looked into is likely to erase its effectiveness and reliability.
Organ transplant refers to replacement of a damaged organ or tissue with freshly harvested living organ or tissue. Not all organs are eligible for transplantation. The major organs that are eligible for transplant surgeries include kidney, heart, liver, lung and pancreas.
The organ used as a replacement in the surgery is donated by another human being known as the organ donor. The organ donor may be a cadaver or a live human being. The most important organs that are donated are kidneys, heart, liver, pancreas, lungs, bone marrow, skin and cornea.
body and in such cases it becomes immensely important to replace the organ with a new organ through transplantation surgery in order to make sure that the person survives. The organ used as a replacement in the surgery is donated by another human being known as the organ donor.
In addition to that, the society also protects life through different measures, suggesting that life of every individual is precious. There is an ongoing debate about whether organ donation should be seen as
Implying that a patient is to be subjected to a kidney transplant in case his or her kidney is deemed to have failed, and is not in a position to perform its normal functions. Many organ failures often come about due to illnesses or injuries
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