Gardener however emphasizes that there might be more forms of intelligence apart from these eight. There have been speculations of the possibility of existence of an experiential intelligence or spiritual intelligence or the ability to reflect on the big questions about life’s meaning. This idea of separate abilities by Gardener is based on evidence that in the instance of brain damage, the functioning of just one area, for instance language, is affected or interfered with and not the functioning of other areas. Another point of proof is the fact that a person may perform extremely well in any one of these eight areas but have no noteworthy abilities in the other seven.
Gardener argues that intelligence refers to the ability to resolve problems and also make outcomes and products that are of value to a culture. There have been various values placed on these eight intelligences in different periods of history and cultures. In cultures with more emphasis on technology, mathematical and verbal intelligences are crucial while in cultures that are farming-oriented, a naturalist intelligence is important. Additionally, Gardener is of the opinion that the foundation of intelligence is biological in nature (Gardener, 1998). However, he does not refute that a general ability exists, but poses the question of how useful it is in accounting for various human achievements.
Though the multiple intelligence theory by Gardener has been adopted by many educators, it has not been widely accepted in the scientific community. Some critics argue that a number of the intelligences are not at all new. Separate spatial and verbal abilities have been discovered by many researchers. Additionally, correlations among the abilities and the eight intelligences are not autonomous in nature. Spatial and logical-mathematical intelligences have a high correlation (Hoy & Hoy, ...
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However, is it fair to judge based just on these skills? Does this not mean that someone who creates a portrait is not smart? According to Gardner’s Theory of Multiple Intelligence, intelligence is not simply measured on two specific levels, but on seven broad levels.
There are at least eight different intelligences according to the Multiple Intelligences theory advanced by Gardner in the year 1983. These include: logical-mathematical, musical, bodily-kinesthetic (involves movement), spatial, intrapersonal (involves understanding oneself), naturalist (involves being observant and understanding of both natural and man-made organizations and patterns), linguistic (verbal) and interpersonal (involves understanding other individuals).
“All who have meditated on the art of governing mankind have been convinced that the fate of empires depends on the education of youth” (Aristotle). It is with the use of the brain that both cognitive development and cognitive reflection create contexts and analysis in which teaching and learning are captured and cultivated.
He later added moral intelligence into the list thus making them seven behavior criteria. The theory does not therefore view intelligence as subjugated by one general ability. The theory dismisses the belief that intelligence is one central concept with universal applicability.
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The principal idea that can be discerned from the first segment of this article is that traditional theories attempting to explain intelligence disparities in people are not conclusive. Departing from conventional explanations of intelligence, like
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