Gardener however emphasizes that there might be more forms of intelligence apart from these eight. There have been speculations of the possibility of existence of an experiential intelligence or spiritual intelligence or the ability to reflect on the big questions about life’s meaning. This idea of separate abilities by Gardener is based on evidence that in the instance of brain damage, the functioning of just one area, for instance language, is affected or interfered with and not the functioning of other areas. Another point of proof is the fact that a person may perform extremely well in any one of these eight areas but have no noteworthy abilities in the other seven.
Gardener argues that intelligence refers to the ability to resolve problems and also make outcomes and products that are of value to a culture. There have been various values placed on these eight intelligences in different periods of history and cultures. In cultures with more emphasis on technology, mathematical and verbal intelligences are crucial while in cultures that are farming-oriented, a naturalist intelligence is important. Additionally, Gardener is of the opinion that the foundation of intelligence is biological in nature (Gardener, 1998). However, he does not refute that a general ability exists, but poses the question of how useful it is in accounting for various human achievements.
Though the multiple intelligence theory by Gardener has been adopted by many educators, it has not been widely accepted in the scientific community. Some critics argue that a number of the intelligences are not at all new. Separate spatial and verbal abilities have been discovered by many researchers. Additionally, correlations among the abilities and the eight intelligences are not autonomous in nature. Spatial and logical-mathematical intelligences have a high correlation (Hoy & Hoy, ...Show more