The outcome so far has been disappointing, though it may be that cognitive psychologists and neuroscientists will soon produce something finer.”Hargreaves argues current educational research is neither adequately cumulative nor relevant to teachers’ practical concerns for it to initiate the contribution required. He draws a contrast between the role of research in education, and role to the practice of medicine by means of evidence based medicine as a model. He claims few teachers use psychology, sociology, philosophy, and history. This makes the teachers work more effective (Reynolds & Trinder, 1997, pg 56) Hargreaves is not very explicit about the form he believes educational research should take. He is neglective of strict methodological problems that are faced by educational researchers. He seems to view the procedure of developing cumulative knowledge about the outcome of different pedagogical methods directly. The use of a standard in judging current educational research that assumes direct and instrumental form of the relationship. Hargreaves argues educational research has failed to provide practitioners with the required knowledge about pedagogical strategies work, and those that do not ensure competence of the practitioner; he claims that it is not only terms of practical skills but familiarity with practice relevant to the research. While Hammersley points out that it is the language Hargreaves uses implies a commitment to a method that many would deem positivist that it values research that emulates the scientific approach.Hammersley challenges the assumption by arguing this type of evidence is effective in improving practice on the basis that scientific methods, and...
This essay approves that the goals of learning in a social constructive perspective differ, and learning is characterized by the subjective reconstruction of society means, and models by carrying out negotiations of meaning in social interaction. Its focus is on interaction within the local setting because they are viewed as automatically related. It is noted that neither an individual learner’s activity nor the local micro culture can be understood without the consideration of the other. These changes the research that is learning compared with a cognitive constructionist research.Constructionism is associated with qualitative data where as sociocultural approaches the original data collection is qualitative because the focal point is on interactions, and dynamic. Learning opportunities arise but research is done on experiences and changes entailed. Many social cultural studies focus on learning as a transformation of identity to forefront the personal characteristics, and have little to say about the system.
This report makes a conclusion that learning technology research is presently dominated by a paradigm that divides the research into two types qualitative, and quantitative. The division is normal science in learning, and has provided an agreement that has permitted researchers to shun disagreements over fundamentals, and an outline for standard research training. The standard structure is under pressure from developing research methods that are relevant to learning. Educational research fails to supply a cumulated body of concrete knowledge about the effectiveness, and efficiency of different methods. May be paradigm could finally be resolved in the natural sciences, because the outcome of research was unreliable.