Many theories have been put forward on how adults learn in the 21st century resulting to different propositions in this issue. One of the many theories proposed is Malcolm Knowles’ theory of andragogy that has gained acceptance based on recognition. This theory has been accepted without careful consideration of its propositions. Though widely accepted, there have been debates about this theory’s classification. People have not been able to define this theory according to its work (is it an adult learning theory, a teaching theory, a philosophical theory or all of these) because it may serve different purposes. Adult learning process is a bit different from child education, and it would encompass issues such as the purpose of learning. This process would also require that those being taught choose how they want the process to be done. This would not be the case when dealing with school going children. This write up looks on how adult learning is done in the 21st century.Knowles defines andragogy as “the art and science of teaching adults.” In his efforts to work on this theory, he gave four assumptions upon which adult learning would be based. According to Knowles, adult learning is based on the following assumptions. The first assumption is that teachers are responsible for helping adults to move from reliance and become independent.The other assumption is that learners are believed to see education as a way to increase their competence. Thirdly, Knowles makes an assumption that learners will be willing to learn to aim that the knowledge attained would enable them solve real-life problems. The other assumption is that adults have are experienced, and this would facilitate the learning process. Later, Knowles together with Holton and Swanson added two assumptions on adult learning. The first one was that adults knew the reason that made them learn at that age. The final assumption in this area is that self esteem is a motivator for adult education. One concept in this theory is that adult learning has been compared to a contract that requires at least two parties. The teacher and the learner negotiate on the outcome of the learning process that is yet to be implemented. Negotiations on how the outcome will be achieved are also done by these two parties. This corporation of the teacher and the learner in formulating strategies together is the foundation upon which andragogy is based. Therefore, andragogy provide insights on the learning process and is considered an approach to adult education and development (St. Clair, 2002). Transformational and relative learning Adult learning process applies a process called situated learning which tackles activities that are familiar to the learner. Here, the adult students learn through immersion in activities that concern their discipline of study. For instance, engineering and political science students would be required to examine the content and structure of governmental websites. This would enable them study the weaknesses and strengths of government resources that are provided online (Sholes, 2003). Situated learning will aim to achieve various aspects on adults taking learning lessons. Present the students with situations that would reflect the way they will apply the knowledge they have acquired in real life situations. For example, this would be in problem solving in their discipline of work. It will also provide numerous roles and multiple perspectives, support working together in construction of knowledge and admission to expert performances. Constructive- development learning The other theory applied in adult learning is constructive- development theory that encompasses adult growth and the learning proc
Adults involve themselves in learning activities for various reasons such as earning advanced certificates, enrich their lives, learn basic skills or even acquire knowledge and skills that would enable them succeed in their work place…
Can ICT Enhance Education In The 21st Century? It has been of utmost importance to understand how technology works in the classrooms today. Information communication and technology is creating real change in schools in the industrialized nations as well as schools in other developing nations.
According to the report distance learning is referred to as learning that takes place between the instructor and the student and both these groups of individuals are distant to each other in the context of physical distance. Online education is a medium of providing instructions to students by teachers with the assistance of different forms of technologies.
Dynamic change gives rise to new conflicts between those who benefit from the old status quo and those who stand to gain from change. Dynamic change opens up new struggles between the losers and the achievers in every aspect of management.
Managers who have worked along with the changing trends of business settings for decades possess the view that management has taken many diverse turns in business, typically cycles of good and bad times, inflation and even deflation, organizational changes that favour centralized vs.
Popularly regarded as a voluntary form of education, researchers contend the perception to be erroneous insofar as it is often imposed on adults by a variety of imperatives, encompassing both personal and professional factors.
The reasons which motivate adult learning are as varied as are the adult learners themselves and, accordingly, impossible to enumerate or identity in their entirety.
The solution of the epidemic can be determined with the involvement of the families, schools and the entire community aimed at the evolution of the strategies for defense. According to the Richard Kreipe, 'the working and strategies evolved to combat obesity is going to be a long haul'.
The in-built flexibility of the degrees is designed to accommodate the many demands that mature students face when they return to education. Since the introduction of the Adult Education Programs they have attracted students from a variety of backgrounds.
cant threats during Clinton’s terms that extended to Bush’s time, and perhaps that which could be considered the most significant in the 21st century, is terrorism. The rise of Osama Bin Laden that disturbed the nation and the whole world shook mightily the peace, order and
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