Oppositional Defiant Disorder Name University Oppositional Defiant Disorder Oppositional defiant disorder is a psychiatric pathology common in children and adolescents, which is characterized by negative behavioral responses, resistance to follow orders, sudden temper flare-ups and behaviors that are unexpected for a particular child’s age…
The age of onset of this psychiatric problem has been observed as early as three years and the clinical features can be identified easily at the age of eight years. It is very uncommon after adolescence. Boys show a greater ratio of this psychiatric disorder as compared to girls up till puberty and after gaining puberty this ratio becomes equal. (Sadock et al 2009). Oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) has various underlying causes and risk factors and it presents with different signs and symptoms and it can be identified by the set diagnostic criteria. The risk factors and etiological factors for ODD are not very clear and the family background, hereditary, environmental and social factors are mostly the underlying causes for the eruption of the symptoms in the child. Child’s natural predisposition plays a critical role in the development of this disorder. Assertive nature of the child and the similar authoritative reaction shown by the parents to discipline their child causes them to retaliate and disobey their authority figures. With the passage of time the child needs to develop a sense of self-confidence and self-determination. However, in cases of difficulty in compliance, this behavior is exaggerated and when he/she steps into adolescence, this oppositional response is intensified. Sexual or physical abuse, lack of proper supervision by parents or neglected childhood, mental retardation in late childhood, chemical imbalance for instance of serotonin and any environmental trauma can also trigger ODD. Families that have undergone problems like divorce, troubled parental relationship, frequent school changes, financial instabilities and strict and harsh discipline maintenance are other etiological factors responsible for ODD. A single factor cannot be pointed out as the cause of ODD in any affected individual (Mayo Clinic Staff 2012; Sadock et al 2009). Classic psychoanalytical theory has explained that the oppositional behavior of the children is the outcome of accumulating aggressive responses against their authority figures and is a way of expressing control over them. This control is expressed through tantrums, temper outbreaks and other negative attitudes (Sadock et al 2009). The clinical features of ODD start presenting before 8 years of age and intensify over the early teen years. It takes months and years for the clinical signs and symptoms of the child to worsen and complicate. The behavior of the child is to be noticed if he/she presents with aggressive nature and various incidents of moodiness over the past six months at least and have been persistent throughout. The symptoms include temper tantrums which are persistent, poor compliance with disobedience for rules, arguing with authority figures like parents, blaming others for own mistakes, anger and aggressive behavior, revenge taking behaviors, easily annoyed and irritated over petty issues, intentional gestures to annoy others and persistent disobedience against the parents. These symptoms can be observed both by parents at home or by teachers and friends in the setting of school. Aggressiveness is expressed by the children more often through verbal communication and harsh attitude against parents or teachers. Physical aggressiveness is less common in ODD, but more common in Conduct Disorder. Children with these features are affected severely in terms of their social, academic and ...
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The traditional assessment method is used in this case. This method does not look for causes of the behaviors observed. It is solely based on the DSM-IV behavioral criteria for ADHD (Barkley, 2005, p.92). The second approach assesses the brain and metabolic dysfunctions which are likely to cause the symptoms of abnormal behaviors and attention deficits.
The cause of this disease has not been definitively established, nevertheless, conduct disorder, as well as other childhood and adolescent mental disorders have been credited as predisposing factors to the development of antisocial personality disorder. Its treatment and prevention therefore have been based on the prevention of the onset of such childhood and adolescent disorders.
The paper is aimed to define and to discuss the symptoms, treatments, and management methods related to ODD. Oppositional Defiant Disorder Oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) is one of the conditions that can affect the behavior, personality and performance of a person at home and in the society.
Treatment of such state should be taken care with endurance and persistence. Professionals involving a social worker, psychotherapist or doctor of psychiatry must take care of this condition. The present article is an attempt to foster an understanding towards the psychological implications of the ADHD as it pertains to listening comprehension.
However, parents, teachers and all authority figures in the family become concerned when a child consistently displays hostile behavior and it has many negative implications on other family members. If the hostile behavior of a child sustains for a long time, the child may have acquired the Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD).
Oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) is a behavioral syndrome that mostly affects kids and adolescents. It is characterized by poor cooperation with the family or friend, high temper, annoying behaviors and negativistic characters. This disease makes the family members or relatives feel worried or anxious.
However, research related to sociopathy and psychopathy shows that criminal actions are normally committed by persons whose psychological performance is dissimilar to that of normal persons, which suggests that criminal behavior should not be understood only as an environmental aspect of human nature, because there is also a causal association between anomalous brain chemistry and hostility.
In often times, a child has the natural caretaker as being the parent from who the child interacts with much of the time. This interaction between a child and the parent/caretaker leads to development of ties especially emotional ties, which helps the child view and interpret the world.
Doggett (2004) indicated that despite continued research, there is hardly any professional agreement regarding the true nature of this problem and consequently (Doggett, 2004), as Barkley et al. (2002) had highlighted that there is no consensus regarding the science, diagnosis, and treatment of ADHD.
ely or impulsively; however, for an incredible number of individuals these signs of impulsivity, hyperactivity and poor attention happen frequently and with adequate intensity causing significant incapacity in performance at school, or any other lifestyle activity. Some of
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