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Intellectual Disability (Formerly Mental Retardation) - Research Paper Example

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Intellectual Disability (Formerly Mental Retardation)

These are genetic, acquired, environmental and sociocultural. In genetic factors, it involves chromosomal or hereditary disorders. Due to the translocation of chromosomes 21 and 15, which cause Down syndrome in newborns, which statistics show occur in 15 of every 10000 births. Other related intellectual disabilities caused by chromosome disorder are the fragile X chromosome syndrome, lesch-nyhan syndrome and rett syndrome among others. On the other hand, intellectual disabilities are acquired through hereditary factors. It can be passed from a parent to a baby. These hereditary factors include galactosemy, Tay-Sachs disease, phenylketonuria, Mowat-Wilson syndrome among others (American Psychiatric Association, 2000; Fernald, 1912). There are acquired factors that also cause intellectual disabilities and these can be grouped into two groups: Congenital and developmental factors. Congenital factors are those that acquired through the infected parent’s body. These infections can be through metabolic, neonatal hypothyroidism, intoxication through lead poisoning, fatal syndrome or prenatal exposure to lethal substances and infectious body diseases like syphilis, toxoplasmosis among others. On the other hand, developmental factors include those infections that are acquired during prenatal period where pregnancy complications such as toxemia could arise leading to intellectual disability (Schrander-Stumpel, et al, 2007). ...
Poverty opens up a wide exposure to environmental and psychosocial factors to the infants. Poor prenatal, perinatal and postnatal health care can lead to intellectual disabilities as well. The above factors are just a few of the known causes of intellectual disabilities though to date, most causes are still unknown and still being researched (American Psychiatric Association, 2000; Schrander-Stumpel, et al, 2007). With different intellectual disabilities, the symptoms differ from one disability to the other with most common characterized by limitation in communication, personal care, home life, self-governance, leisure time, work, academic skills, health and safety and lastly limitations in social life (Schrander-Stumpel, et al, 2007). While these are common characteristics, there are those particular characters that are observed with a particular disability. With the genetic disorders in the fragile X syndrome, a person’s brain is affected, hence, displaying characters associated with autism, which include poor eye contact, anxiety, sudden mood change and hand flapping (American Psychiatric Association, 2000). Although it is rare, it affects both males and females. In the case of Phenylketonuria, it leads to corrosion of myelin in the brain exhibiting signs of epilepsy and neurological problems. There are symptoms of autistic disorder and hyperactivity in the case of Bourneville as an intellectual disability. Lastly, on genetic etiology, there is Lesch Nyhan syndrome, which allows excess flow of uric acid. It is characterized by self-mutilating behaviors like finger, lip biting, and makes the victim more aggressive towards others (American Psychiatric ...Show more


Intellectual disability (formerly mental retardation) (Name) (University) (Course) (Tutor) (Date) Intellectual disability is the presence of incomplete mental development characterized by the deterioration of concrete functions at each of development stage…
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