opmental disorder that manifests before 3 years of age in infants through social damage, verbal and non-verbal communication difficulties, stereotyped and repetitive behaviours (Celani 2003, p.141). Cases of infantile autism or developmental disorders have been rampant with a prevalence of about 116.1 per 10000 as reported in recent findings by Gillian Baird and colleagues, which is much higher than it was thought in previous studies (Lancet 2006, p.179), thus leading to a universal interest in autism (Kanner 1943 p.2003). In relation to this study, other studies in the UK and Sweden have also found that nearly 60% of pervasive developmental disorders as a whole was a typical autism while a half of the of these disorders was a non-specified subtype, a DSM-IV equivalent of atypical autism. This paper aims to provide a critical examination of the characteristics and causal theories of ASD and the challenges this raises for mainstream educational settings, and how these challenges can be addressed to promote educational outcomes for cases of autism.
The etiology of ASD is not well understood today but the current genetic basis for ASD has been motivated from observations that the rates of recurrence of ASD in siblings of individuals affected are considerably higher than that in the general population. In addition to that, twin studies have also revealed that concordance rates are about 60% and 90% for monozygotic twins but only about 0-10% for dizygotic twins (Whitelaw et al 2007, p.752); a specific cause for ASD can be identified in very isolated cases such as Fragile X syndrome, Chromosome disorders, tuberous sclerosis, and inborn errors of metabolism. The clear-cut linkage between ASD in these instances notwithstanding, the causes of ASD remain unclear in higher than 90% of all instances, but in the current studies, a lot of focus is directed to proving the genetic linkages by identifying the specific genes allied to autism. Meanwhile, in the absence of concrete ...Show more