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Appendix A National Council of Teachers of Mathematics (NCTM) Principles and Process Standards Worksheet Directions: Go to the NCTM website by using the following directions: 1. Go to http://www.nctm.org/ 2. Click the Standards and Focal Points link in the light blue navigation bar at the top-left of the page… Read TextPreview

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6. Expectations for each grade level (Pre K-2, Grades 3-5, etc.) are listed under each standard. Review the Math Standards and Expectations section and select two significant process standards. Explain in 100- to 200- words why you choose these two standards. I have decided to review the measurement standards, Data analysis and probability standards. I have chosen these two areas because they are the most challenging parts of mathematics involving critical thinking. In the case of measurement standards, a student between pre-k and grade two cannot distinguish between standard and nonstandard units. In addition, due to their age and class, understanding estimates is hard for them hence basic measurement tools become essential for them. For example, a grade two student cannot use a Vanier caliper since they will make numerous errors in the measurement. For the case of data analysis,expecting a grade two student to understand about graphs is an over estimate. Such should only learn the basics of data, how to classify them and use objects and pictures to represent data. In addition, the activity of designing investigation and the concept of categorical and numerical data is not fit for grade 3-5 student. This student should only be taught about data collection methods and how to represent the data using tables and graphs. Directions: Review the NCTM Principles and Process Standards for School Mathematics, and complete the following two tables. Table 1: NCTM Principles Description Provide a short description of each of the six NCTM principles for school mathematics. NCTM Principles Principle Description 1 Equity This means giving students equal opportunities to learn mathematics regardless of their personal characteristics, backgrounds, or physical challenges. 2 Curriculum This is the arrangement of mathematics topics in order to introduce ideas in a way that they build on each other thus portraying the relationship among important mathematical ideas. 3 Teaching This is trying to give students as much information about a mathematics topic as possible. This can only be possible if teachers understand deeply the mathematics they are teaching. 4 Learning This is the concept understanding of a student about a particular mathematics concept and it enables the student to solve problems and settings that they have not encountered before. 5 Assessment This is the process of teaching while trying to uncover how much students have understood a certain topic during a particular learning period. 6 Technology This is the use of emerging learning machines like calculators and computers in working out mathematical problems. This actually has helped a lot since it has made some mathematical problems easier to solve and understandable. Table 2: NCTM Process Standards Complete the following table by providing a brief description and a real-world example of the five NCTM Process Standards for School Mathematics. NCTM Process Standards Standard Description Real-World Example 1 Problem solving This is applying mathematics knowledge to solve problems that arise in life and to design a strategy that monitors the way these problems are solved. If someone has 10 dollars to buy pens each at 2dollars, he can use mathematics to know the number of pens that he can buy. 2 Communication This is the use of other mathematical judgments to consolidate and organize a particular manner ...
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