This is the case considering that videos and animations may contain rich forms and extraneous details which present information in a way that is more complex compared to an animation. In this respect, a video is more likely to overburden the working memory of learners to the extent that they may not be able to store whatever they have learnt in their long-term memory (Mayer & Clark, p. 316). Furthermore, videos may provide information that may distract the learners from focusing on the main message being passed to the. On the other hand, still diagrams may be less motivating to the learners. Using still diagrams as the preferred option is consistent with the results of different studies that show that they are more effective than videos and animations (Mayer & Clark, p. 316).
As the instructor uses still diagrams to teach about exercising, it is best for them to accompany the diagrams with audio narration. This is consistent with several findings from research (such as those done by Moreno (2006); Sweller 2005; and Ginns (2005)) that show audio narration to be more effective than printed text when it comes to learning (Mayer & Clark, p. 317). ...Show more