These are provisions established mainly for the children in the minorities, immigrants and poor groups in society. Additionally, many people at the time stigmatized these child welfare provisions as being charitable and custodial. This pattern created a weak foundation for establishing better social services in the twentieth century.
However, as the Progressive Era picked in the twentieth century, the reform efforts of women picked also, paving the way for the reforming and modernization of the childcare services. To draw attention and demonstrate the need for approved methods of nurturing children from infancy, Josephine Dodge led a group of New York philanthropists to establish a Model Day Nursery in 2893, and exhibited it at the Worlds Columbian Exhibition in Chicago. After the exhibition, hey worked forward, founding the National Federation of Day Nursery (NFDN) the first nationwide organization designated to handle the child welfare issue. The establishment of these Day Nurseries created a dilemma for poor mothers as it compelled them to seek employment to support the children. Activist, Jane Addams established that children suffered inadequate attention and care from mothers as they sought employment, hence established the basis for mothers’ pensions. Thu, Jane Addams, Julia Lathrop and the Hull House colleagues would rise to become the leaders of the U.S. Children Bureau, founded in 1912 (In Isenberg, In Jalongo, & Bredekamp, 2008).
The pattern of development continued in the 1920s with the U.S. Children Bureau established a series of studies on maternal and child labor issues in the agricultural and mining industries, in the country. The investigators found serious instances of injuries, illness and fatalities resulting from the children, left alone at home, or brought into hazardous workplaces and even working in such dangerous places. The Children Bureau continued to support ...Show more