Methods 10 Participants 10 Design and procedure 10 Data analysis 10 Summary 11 References 12 1. Introduction Background Secondary and high school students in US, UK and other countries have been witnessing an increasing drop in educational achievement of boys when compared to girls. In some of the school settings, research has found that girls outperformed boys in English more than in other subjects (Bush, 2005). While there may be many reasons for underachievement of both, it is more prevalent with performance of boys rather than that of girls. More boys who underachieve in GCSE test in the UK are found to fail or underachieve in the elementary too. It is likely that boys are four times prone to underachieve than girls of the same age. There is an ‘anti-education culture’ (Paton, 2007) gaining acceptance among ‘the lads’, particularly in the working class boys who develop a ‘counter-school culture’ in terms of ‘hegemonic masculinity’ in which the teachers are also found to be accomplices to an extent (Abraham, 2008). Patterns of interaction among underachieving boys and girls are also similar as boys tend to develop anti-education culture more prominent in the early years while girls develop similar behavioural traits at later stages (Myhill, 2002). A study by AUT University in Auckland reveals that more teenage boys, as high as 72 percent, are underachieving and are over-represented in suspension and stand down rates than girls. Also, 10 percent more of girls are entering university when compared to boys (Boys underachieving in school and overrepresented in suspensions, 2009). Although, there has been a general disparity between girls and boys attending primary education in many countries across the globe, over the last three decades, the intervention of Commonwealth has ensured equality in education and gender parity. This has led to increased participation among girls on par with boys. However, underachievement in education by boys is a serious concern faced by almost all countries and is inevitably compared with participation and performance of girls (Jha and Kelleher, 2006). Need for the Study Motivation techniques for underachieving students, which section, is dominated by boys are to be identified to tackle the problem of underachievement in education by boys. It may be that the issue of underachievement is blown out of proportion by a section of the organization or media but the problem remains. Several researchers have tried to understand the reasons behind the anti-education culture exhibited by boys but somewhere down the line, there is a lack of clarity on the nature of problem and the necessary remedies that need to be included in addressing the issue on hand. Statement of the Problem The purpose of this study is to understand the reasons behind underachievement in education by boys. It is to be understood at what stage, boys who underachieve start to show behavioural or performance symptoms. Gender differences and their influencing factors will also have to be related to understand the anti-education culture that boys are found to exhibit. It is also important to understand what solutions can be obtained in this regard and to what extent are they measureable. Limitations This study is limited in scope as it focuses on understanding gender differences and differences in educational performance in the different levels or forms. Although reasons for
Gender differences in academic underachievement Abstract This paper studies underachievement among boys in the different levels in school. It is found that underachievement is considered as a problem among boys and there is a need for intervention to motivate for higher participation and performance…
Constable (2008) declares the family and school to be the central places for the development of children as they lead the way towards the hopes for the proper socialization of the next generation. Every nation has established unique ways to coach adolescents: some educational institutions introduce co-education and boys and girls study in the same school and classroom sharing the same environment, libraries, science labs and studying rooms.
Some also think that men are naturally good in math, while women are better in communication skills. Psychologists and social researchers are not always in agreement, when it comes to the strength of nature and nurture in forming gender differences (Sameroff 8).
Communication is the means through which ideas and information are conveyed from one person to another. People use communication to express feelings, emotions, views, and values, for learning and teaching, and for improving their status (Barret & Davidson, 2006). Therefore, communication is essential to human interaction.
Individual life chances are associated with the social classes within the society. Life chances are the amalgamation of opportunities which are available to a given individual. They are basically restrictions or hindrances on various choices (Moore, 46). Not every individuals face same choices and restrictions on the choices are internalized and they shape the behavior of the individuals.
'This is how a man does it or this is what a women should do' aren't comments we are unfamiliar with . The society and culture does subconsciously label these roles which in turn defines our behaviour. The behavioural pattern of every individual is to a lot of extend dependent of the surroundings he or she grows up in.
More importantly, this creates divisions in the ability for gender to move forward within a specific environment because of social and organizational policies. To change this, organizations are required to create strategies and
This essay investigates this trend in job satisfaction in order to determine if there exist any systematic personality differences of male and female workers that can be attributed to women reporting higher levels of job
Both the women and men in the middle working class has been sharing responsibility, and there is no defined house role for a specific person. In addition, the women in the society have made some great achievement compared to the men in the African
5 pages (1250 words)Research Paper
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